Cosmic Dark Age
asr-e târik-e keyhâni
Fr.: âge sombre cosmique
pordeli (#), deliri (#), darš
The quality of mind or spirit that enables a person to face difficulty, danger, pain, etc.
M.E. corage, from O.Fr., derivative of cœur "heart," from L. cor, cognate with Pers. del and E. → heart
pordel (#), delir (#), daršmand
Having or characterized by courage.
M.E., from O.Fr. corageus, corajos, from → courage.
1) General: The extent to which something is covered.
From → cover + -age a suffix forming abstract nouns.
Fr.: tension de coupure
The electrode voltage which reduces the value of a dependent variable, e.g. anode current, to a specified low value.
vine-ye žarf, tasvir-e ~
Fr.: image profonde
An image obtained using a deep exposure to reveal the weak features of the object.
differential image motion monitor (DIMM)
pahregar-e jonbeš-e degarsâneyi-ye vine, ~ ~ ~ tasvir
Fr.: moniteur de mouvements d'images différentiels, moniteur seeing
A device that is commonly used to measure the → seeing at optical astronomical sites. The DIMM delivers an estimate of the → Fried parameter based on measuring the variance of the differential image motion in two small apertures, usually cut out in a single larger telescope pupil by a mask. The DIMM concept was introduced by Stock & Keller (1960, in Stars and Stellar Systems, Vol. 1, ed. G. P. Kuiper & B. M. Middlehurst, p. 138), whereas its modern implementation was first described by Sarazin & Roddier (1990, A&A 227, 294).
1) The giving of a dose.
From Fr. dosage, → dose.
Fr.: âge dynamique
Age based on dynamical properties of a system. For example, the time derived for a system to evolve from an initial state to its present state, based on velocity and dimension (size) measurements.
European Space Agency (ESA)
Sâzmân-e Fazâyi-ye Orupâ
Fr.: Agence spatiale européenne
An intergovernmental organisation dedicated to space research and technology as well as peaceful exploration of space, founded in 1975. It is headquartered in Paris and currently comprises 18 member states and one associated state (Canada). ESA has developed the Ariane series of space launch vehicles, and supports a launch facility in French Guiana. Moreover, ESA has four major research centers: The European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), located in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, is the primary research center and manages the satellite projects. The European Space Operations Center (ESOC), situated in Darmstadt, Germany, is responsible for satellite control, monitoring, and data retrieval. The European Space Research Institute (ESRIN), located in Frascati, Italy, supports the ESA documentation service and manages the data obtained from remote sensing satellites. The European Astronaut Center (EAC), located in Cologne, Germany, is responsible for the selection and training of astronauts for space station missions. The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), located in Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid, Spain, which holds scientific operations centres as well as archives. Some of the past ESA missions are the following ones. The Giotto space probe, which enabled examination of the core of → Halley's Comet in 1986. ESA also developed the Ulysses spacecraft (launched 1990) to explore the Sun's polar regions. Similarly, ESA established a system of meteorological satellites known as Meteosat. In 2003 ESA launched the Mars Express orbiter and its lander, Beagle 2. In 2009 ESA launched → Planck Satellite, that is designed to study the → cosmic microwave background, and the → Herschel Satellite, an infrared observatory that is the largest telescope in space.
Fr.: étape d'évolution
A particular step or phase in the evolution of an astronomical object.
Fr.: cage de Faraday
An enclosure made of conducting material, such as wire mesh or metal plates, that shields what it contains from external electric fields. According to → Gauss's theorem, the electric field inside a hollow conductor is nil. In order to demonstrate this, Faraday, in 1836, made a large box covered with wire mesh, and went inside it himself with an → electroscope. Powerful charges were applied to the outside of the box, but he detected no effect inside the cage.
Fr.: langage formel
A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is unsuitable, as for example in → mathematics, → logic, or → computer → programming. The symbols and formulas of such languages stand in precisely specified syntactic and semantic relations to one another (Dictionary.com).
fractional sky coverage
pušeš-e barxe-yi-ye âsmân
Fr.: couverture partielle du ciel
The portion of the 4π → steradians of the sky that a radiotelescope can observe from a given location on Earth over a 24-hour time interval.
vine-ye porzvâr, ~ tasvir-e
Fr.: image floue, ~ estompée
Same as → blurred image.
Hagen number (Hg)
Fr.: nombre de Hagen
named after the German hydraulic engineer Gotthilf H. L. Hagen (1797-1884); → number.
1) Something inherited at birth, such as personal characteristics,
status, and possessions.
M.E. from M.Fr., from O.Fr. iritage, eritage, heritage "heir; inheritance, ancestral estate, heirloom," from heriter "inherit," from L.L. hereditare, ultimately from L. heres (genitive heredis) "heir, heiress," from PIE root *ghe- "to be empty, left behind" (related Gk. word khera "widow").
Rigan from rig "left, abandoned" (in mordé rig "heritage, effects of a dead person, anything hereditary, heirloom") + noun suffix -an (as in rowzan, rowšan, suzan, rasan, zaqan, hâvan, etc.); ultimately from Proto-Ir. *raic- "to leave, abandon;" cf. Av. raēc- "to leave, let;" Mid.Pers. (+ *pati-) phryz-, Mod.Pers. parhêz, parhiz "to keep away from, abstain, avoid;" Khotanese (+ *fra-) hars- "to be left, remain;" Mod.Pers. rištan "to set at liberty, absolve;" Mid.Pers. (+ *ui-) wirēz-, Mod.Pers. gurēz, goriz, gurēxtan, gorixtan "to flee, run away;" Gk. leipein "to leave;" L. linquere "to leave;" PIE *leikw- "to leave, let" (Cheung 2006).
1) Respect or reverence paid or rendered.
M.E. (h)omage, from O.Fr. homage "allegiance or respect for one's feudal lord," from homme "man," → human, + -age.
Fr.: classification de Hubble-Sandage
Same as the → Hubble classification.
Fr.: variable de Hubble-Sandage
A type of highly luminous → blue supergiant star with variable light, first discovered in the M31 and M33 galaxies; also called → S Doradus stars. They are now believed to be part of the class of → Luminous Blue Variable stars.
→ Hubble; Allan Rex Sandage (1926-2010), American cosmologist.