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peripheral response pâsox-e pirâbari Fr.: réponse périphérique In a charge-coupled device, the detection of charge collected by the transport register rather than by the image-sensing elements. → peripheral; → response. |
peripheral vision did-e pirâbari Fr.: vision périphérique In optics, the ability to see over large angles of view. → peripheral; → vision. |
periphery pirâbar Fr.: périphérie The external surface or boundary of a body. The circumference or perimeter of any closed figure. From, M.E., from O.Fr. periferie, from L.L. peripheria, from Gk. peripheria "circumference, outer surface," literally "a carrying around," from peripheres "rounded, moving round," peripherein "to carry or move round," from → peri- "round about" + pherein "to carry;" cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, lead," as below. Pirâbar, from pirâ-, → peri-, + bar present stem of bordan "to carry, lead" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry"). |
periscope pirâbin, pirânemâ (#) Fr.: périscope An optical instrument for viewing objects which are above the eye-level of the observer, or are placed so that direct vision is blocked. |
permafrost mândbašm Fr.: pergélisol Layer of soil or rock, at some depth beneath the surface, in which the temperature has been continuously below 0Â°C from a few to several thousands of years. It exists where summer heating fails to reach the base of the layer of frozen ground. From perma(nent) + → frost. |
permanent mândegâr (#) Fr.: permanent Lasting or remaining without essential change. Permanent, from M.Fr. permanent, from L. permanentem "remaining," pr.p. of permanere "endure, continue, stay to the end," from per- "through" + manere "stay," cognate with Pers. mândan, as below; → gas. |
permanent gas gâz-e mândegâr Fr.: gaz permanent Gas which cannot be liquefied by pressure alone; gas above its critical temperature. |
permanent magnet âhanrobâ-ye mândegâr Fr.: aimant permanent A piece of magnetic material which, having been → magnetized, retains a substantial proportion of its → magnetization indefinitely. In permanent magnets the magnetic field is generated by the internal structure of the material itself. Atoms and crystals constituting materials are made up of electrons and atomic nuclei. Both the nucleus and the electrons themselves act like little magnets. There is also a magnetic field generated by the orbits of the electrons as they move about the nucleus. So the magnetic fields of permanent magnets are the sums of the nuclear spins, the electron spins and the orbits of the electrons themselves. In many materials, the magnetic fields are pointing in all sorts of random directions and cancel each other out and there is no permanent magnetism. But in certain materials, called → ferromagnets, all the spins and the orbits of the electrons will line up, causing the materials to become magnetic. Many permanent magnets are created by exposing the magnetic material to a very strong external magnetic field. Once the external magnetic field is removed, the treated magnetic material is now converted into a permanent magnet. Overheating a permanent magnet causes the magnet's atoms to vibrate violently and disrupt the alignment of the atomic domains and their dipoles. Once cooled, the domains will not realign as before on their own and will structurally become a temporary magnet (MagLab Dictionary). |
permanent memory barm-e mândegâr Fr.: mémoire permanente Storage capacity which does not depend on a continuous supply of power, e.g. disks, magnetic tapes, etc. |
permeability tarâvâyi (#) Fr.: perméabilité The degree of → magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. → magnetic permeability. From permeable, from L. permeabilis "that can be passed through, passable," from L. permeare "to pass through," from per- "through" + meare "to pass," from PIE base *mei- "to change; to go, move." Tarâvâyi quality noun of tarâvâ "permeable," from tarâvidan "to exude, trickle, ooze; to drop," probably from Proto-Iranian *tra-vaxš-. The first component *tra- "across, over, beyond," → trans-. The second component *vaxš-, cf. Av. uxš-/vaxš- "to sprinkle," present tense stem uxš-; cf. Skt. uks- "to sprinkle, moisten," uksati "spinkles, wets;" Gk. hygros "wet, moist, fluid;" L. uvidus "watery, humid, damp." Tarâvidan may be a back formation from *tarâvaš. |
permission parzâmeš Fr.: permission The act of permitting. Authorization granted to do something. |
permit parzâmidan Fr.: permettre To allow to be done or occur. From M.Fr. permetre, from L. permittere "give up, allow, allow to pass through," from per- "through;" (from PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond;" cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over;" Skt. pari; Indo-Iranian *pari- "around;" Mod.Pers. par-, pirâ- "around, about") + mittere "let go, send." Parzâmidan, literally "to allow to go through," infinitive of parzâm, from par- "through," from O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," cognet with L. per-, as above + zâm stem of Mid.Pers. zâmenidan "to let go, lead, send," Mod.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" O.Pers./Av. gam- "to come; to go," Av. jamaiti "goes;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step," L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A kÃ¤m- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come," E. come; PIE base *gwem- "to go, come." |
permitted parzâmidé Fr.: permis Allowed. → permitted line; → permitted transition. Past participle of → permit. |
permitted line xatt-e parzâmidé Fr.: raie permise An ordinary spectral line emitted by atoms undergoing energy transitions that are allowed by the selection rules of quantum mechanics. → forbidden lines. |
permitted transition gozareš-e parzâmidé Fr.: transition permise A transition between two quantum mechanical states that does not violate the quantum mechanical selection rules. → permitted; → transition. |
permittivity parzâmandegi Fr.: permittivité A measure of the ability of a material to transmit (or "permit") an electric field. Permittivity is defined as the ratio of the flux density produced by an electric field in a given dielectric to the flux density produced by that field in a vacuum. In → SI units, permittivity is measured in → farads per meter. The constant ε_{0} is known as the permittivity of free space; its value is about 8.854 x 10^{-12} F/m. State or quality noun from → permit. |
permutation permuteš, jâygašt Fr.: permutation Math.: A rearrangement of the elements of a set in a particular order. The number of permutations of n objects is equal to n! (→ factorial n). For example, there are 24 permutations of letters A, B, C, and D (4! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4). The number of permutations of n objects taken r at a time is denoted by ^{n}P_{r} and equals n! / (n - r)!. For example, the number of permutation of A, B, C, and D taken two at a time is 12. If n objects are of k different kinds, with r_{1} alike of one kind, permutations of n objects equals n! / r_{1}! r_{2}! ... r_{k}!, where r_{1} + r_{2} + ... r_{k} = n. Verbal noun of → permute. Permuteš, verbal noun of → permute. |
permute permutidan Fr.: permuter M.E., from L. permutare "to change throughout," from per- "through" + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mith- "to alternate, meet," mithás "opposite, in opposition;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake). Permutidan, from permute, as above. |
perpendicular pâlâr Fr.: perpendiculaire A line or plane at right angles to another line or plane. Two curves are said to be perpendicular if their tangent lines are mutually perpendicular. → normal; → vertical From M.E. perpendiculer(e), from O.Fr. perpendiculiere, from L. perpendicularis "vertical, as a plumb line," from perpendiculum "plumb line," from perpendere "balance carefully," from per- "thoroughly" + pendere "to weigh, to hang." Pâlâr "pillar, column, main beam." |
perpendicular axis theorem farbin-e âsehâ-ye pâlâr Fr.: théorème des axes perpendiculaires The → moment of inertia of a plane object (→ lamina) about an axis perpendicular to the plane is equal to the sum of the moments of inertia about any two perpendicular axes in the plane. Thus if x and y axes are in the plane, I_{z} = I_{x} + I_{y}. → perpendicular; → axis; → theorem. |
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