quantum mechanical system
râžmân-e kuântom mekâniki
Fr.: système mécanique quantique
kuântom mekânik, mekânik-e kuântomi
Fr.: mécanique quantique
A development of Newtonian mechanics based on the discrete character of energy (Planck 1900) and the wave motion of material particles (de Broglie 1924). It is relies on the consideration that energy state of a quantum mechanical system can be derived at a given instant by a function whose square of the modulus gives the probability distribution of the coordinates of the system. Quantum mechanics is essential for the treatment of all atomic processes. It holds also for ordinary large scale processes although in this case the deviations from Newtonian mechanics are negligible.
Fr.: bruit quantique
A random variation of signal due to fluctuations in the average rate of incidence of quanta on a detector. Quantum noise is described by the → Poisson distribution. Same as → photon noise and → shot effect.
adad-e kuântomi (#)
Fr.: nombre quantique
A number used in quantum mechanics, specifying the state of an electron bound in an atomic system. The quantum numbers are integers or half integers and specify the number of units of energy, momentum, spin, etc. possessed by an electron.
quantum of action
Fr.: quantum d'action
quantum phase transition (QPT)
gozareš-e fâz-e kuântomi
Fr.: transition de phase quantique
A phase transitions that occurs at zero temperature as a function of a non-thermal parameter like → pressure, → magnetic field, or → chemical composition. In contrast to ordinary → phase transitions, which are associated with passage through a critical temperature, quantum phase transitions are associated with → quantum fluctuations, a consequence of → Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. For example, see → Bose-Einstein condensation.
Fr.: état quantique
negare-ye kuântomi (#)
Fr.: théorie quantique
The theoretical basis of modern physics which describes the behavior and interactions of elementary particles or energy states based on the assumptions that energy is subdivided into discrete amounts and that matter possesses wave properties. → quantum mechanics; → quantum field theory.
Fr.: unitarité quantique
A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time.
Fr.: marche quantique
A generalization of the classical concept of → random walk using quantum mechanical laws such as the → superposition principle and → interference of quantum amplitudes. In the classical version the particle moves in the position space with a certain probability. In contrast, in the quantum counterpart the particle moves by exploring multiple possible paths simultaneously with the amplitudes corresponding to the influence of different paths. The concept of quantum walk is studied in two standard forms: → continuous-time quantum walk and → discrete-time quantum walk. Quantum walk was first introduced by Aharonov et al. (1993, Phys. Rev. A, 48, 1687).
Fr.: rendement quantique
In photochemistry, the number of defined events which occur per photon absorbed by the system.
âpârgar-e mekânik-e kuântomi
Fr.: opérateur en mécanique quantique
A linear → Hermitian operator associated with a physical quantity.
relativistic quantum mechanics
kuântom mekânik-e bâzânigimand
Fr.: mécanique quantique relativiste
A quantum theory that incorporates special relativity, for example, → quantum electrodynamics.
spin quantum number
adad-e kuântomi-ye espin
Fr.: nombre quantique de spin
An integer or half-integer on which the magnitude of a particle's → spin angular momentum depends. It is expressed in units of → Planck's constant divided by 2π. Called also spin, denoted s. The spin of a particle can only have a value that is zero or a multiple of 1/2. Particles with half-integer spins, 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ..., are → fermions. Particles with integer spin (0, 1, 2, ...) are called → bosons.