The study of the properties of geometric figures that remain invariant under certain transformations, as bending or stretching. A circle is topologically equivalent to an ellipse (into which it can be deformed by stretching) and a sphere is equivalent to an ellipsoid.
From topo- combining form of Gk. topos "place" + → -logy.
Topošenâsi, from topo-, loan from Gk., as above, + šenâsi→ -logy.
dašt-e nâkojâ, ~ nâkojâ âbâd
Fr.: Utopia Planitia
A → plain in the northern hemisphere of Mars that was chosen as the landing site of the Viking II space probe on September 3, 1976.
Mod.L. Utopia, literally "nowhere," coined by Thomas More (1516), from Gk. ou "not" + topos "place;" planitia, from planus, → plain.
Dašt, → plain; nâkojâ "nowhere," from nâ-, → un-, + kojâ "where?; a place;" Mid.Pers. kugiyâg, from kū "where; that; than" + giyâk "place" (O.Pers. ā-vahana- "place, village;" Av. vah- "to dwell, stay," vanhaiti "he dwells, stays;" Skt. vásati "he dwells;" Gk. aesa (nukta) "to pass (the night);" Ossetic wat "room; bed; place;" Tokharian B wäs- "to stay, wait;" PIE base ues- "to stay, live, spend the night"); nâkojâ âbâd literally "city of nowhere, habitation of nowhere," from nâkojâ, as explained, + âbâd "city; habitation; cultivated" (Mid.Pers. âpât, âpâtân "cultivated, inhabitated;" Proto-Iranian *ā-pāta- "protected," from prefix ā + pā- "to protect, guard" (Mod.Pers. pâyidan), → observe.