1) âporé; 2) âporidan
1a) A thing added to something else in order to complete, reinforce, or extend it.
From L. supplementum "that which fills up, that with which anything is made full or whole, something added to supply a deficiency," from supplere "to fill up, complete," from → sub- "up from below" + plere "to fill;" cognate with Pers. por, as below.
Âporidan, from prefix â- + por "full;" Mid.Pers. purr; O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; P.Gmc. *fullaz (O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll, Goth. full, O.E. full).
Completing something or added as a supplement.
Fr.: angle supplémentaire
The angle that when added to a given angle makes 180°. → complementary angle.
1) pâdir; 2) pâdiridan
Fr.: 1) appui, soutien, support; 2) supporter, soutenir, être pour, appuyer
1a) Something that serves as a foundation, prop, brace, or stay.
M.E. supporten, from M.Fr. supporter, from L. supportare "convey, carry, bring forward," from → sub- "up from under" + portare "to carry."
Pâdir "a column supporting a building; a post supporting a wall."
engâštan, engâridan (#)
1) To assume (something), as for the sake of argument or as part of a proposition
Engâštan, engâridan "to suppose," from Mid.Pers. (h)angârtan "to conside, to bear in mind, to regard as," from han, ham "together" → com- + kartan "to establish; to declare; to found;" Av. han-kârayeiti, from han-, ham- "together," + kar- "to remember; to impress on memory."
1) To put down by authority or force.
farâz, bâlâ, abar-
A prefix denoting "over, above, beyond, greater than."
From L. supra "above, over, before, beyond," → super-.
Fr.: couche super-eddingtonienne
In some stellar models, particularly for evolved → massive stars, such as → red supergiants, → Luminous Blue Variables, and → Wolf-Rayet stars, an outermost layer of the stellar envelope where the luminosity might exceed the → Eddington limit. This is due to the → opacity peak produced by the variation in the ionization level of hydrogen in the outer → convective envelope, beneath the surface, of very luminous stars. The opacity peak generates supra-Eddington layers and density inversion. The high opacity decreases the Eddington luminosity in these layers, possibly to fainter levels than the actual stellar luminosity. As a result, the → radiative acceleration exceeds the → gravitational acceleration leading to → mass loss enhancement (see, e.g., A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, Springer, 2009).
supra-horizontal branch star
setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqi
Fr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale
A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.
Fr.: échappement suprathermal
An → atmospheric escape mechanism that occurs where individual atoms or molecules in the atmosphere are raised to → escape velocity because of chemical reactions or ionic interactions. Same as → nonthermal escape (see, e.g., Catling, D. C. and Kasting, J. F., 2017, Escape of Atmospheres to Space, pp. 129-167. Cambridge University Press).
1) Highest in rank or authority.
M.E., from M.Fr. suprême, and directly from L. supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above," → super-.
Fr.: rayon de balayage
The → radius of a → supernova remnant (SNR) when, at the end of the → free expansion phase, the mass of the swept-up → shell equals that of the ejected gas from the → supernova explosion. It is given by RSW = (3Me / 4πρ0)(1/3), where Me is the ejected mass and ρ0 is the initial density of the → interstellar medium.
Fr.: groupe de symétrie
A group of symmetry-preserving operations composed of all rigid motions or similarity transformations of some geometric object onto itself.
Fr.: support thermique
In star formation models, the gas pressure that counters the collapsing pull of gravity.
Electrical circuit consisting of two dissimilar metals, in which an electromotive force is produced when the two junctions are at different temperatures.
Fr.: supernova thermonucléaire
Same as → type Ia supernova
Fr.: troisième dragage
A → dredge-up process that occurs in the stellar interior during He shell burning, as in → asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. These stars consist of a degenerate carbon-oxygen core, surrounded by a helium-rich region, above which lies a hydrogen-rich convective envelope. Following thermal pulses of the helium-burning shell, the convective envelope moves inward in mass, penetrating the hydrogen-exhausted regions. This is known as third dredge-up. As convection moves inward, nuclear processed materials are carried to the surface.
jafsari-ye kešandi, jofteš-e
Fr.: couplage par marées
In a system composed of one celestial body orbiting another, the synchronization of the orbital and rotational motions of the two bodies under the action of → tidal forces. For example, Pluto is tidally coupled to its moon Charon. As for the → Earth-Moon system, billions of years from now, the Earth and the Moon will have the same period of rotation, and these will also exactly equal the orbital period of the Moon around the Earth. → tidal friction.
Fr.: rupture par effet de marée
The disruption of an extended astronomical object under the action of the → tidal forces exerted by another nearby object.