qânun-e Kramers (#)
Fr.: loi de Kramers
An approximate expression for deriving the → opacity that depends upon temperature with a power law: κ ∝ ρT-3.5, where ρ represents the density. In → partial ionization zones, a part of the energy released during a layer's compression can be used for further ionization, rather than raising the temperature of the gas. As the temperature of the compressed layer has not substantially increased, the increase in density produces a corresponding increase in the opacity of the layer. Likewise, during the expansion phase, the temperature does not decrease significantly since the ions release energy when they recombine with electrons.
Derived in 1923 by the Dutch physicist Henrik Kramers (1894-1952); → law.