To adjust or determine, by comparison with a standard, the response magnitude of a measuring instrument as a function of the input signal. For example, to determine line wavelengths in the spectrum of an astronomical object, or to graduate a hygrometer.
From M.Fr. calibre, via Sp. or It., from Ar. qalib "a mold, last," perhaps from Gk. kalopodion "a shoemaker's last," from kalon "wood" + podos gen. of pous "foot."
Kabizidan, verbal form of kabiz (varianats kaviz, kaviž, kafiz) "a measure for grain, a bushel," from Mid.Pers. kabiz "a grain measure," loaned in Arm. kapic "a grain measure," and in Gk. kapithe, as attested in Xenophon.
Fr.: étalonnage, calibration
1) The act or process of calibrating or the state of being calibrated.
Calibration, noun from → calibrate.
Kabizeš, noun from kabizidan, → calibrate.
Fr.: courbe d'étalonnage
An empirical curve obtained through appropriate exposures in order to determine the instrument's response. For example, a curve allowing the conversion of relative intensities of an observed object into absolute fluxes, or a curve relating the detector's pixel positions to wavelengths.
Fr.: erreur d'étalonnage
A systematic error in the constant values to be applied to a measuring instrument.
Fr.: pose d'étalonnage
An exposure obtained with an instrument mounted on the telescope using an artificial illuminating source in order to calibrate the instrument.
Fr.: lampe d'étalonnage
A lamp used for instrument calibration, such as an internal He-Ar arc for wavelength calibration or an external source of light placed in the telescope dome for flat-field exposures.
→ calibration; lamp, from O.Fr. lampe, L. lampas, from Gk. lampas "torch, lamp, light, meteor," from lampein "to shine."
Kabizeš, → calibration; lâmp, from Fr., as above.
A general term for certain reference astronomical sources that allow determining the characteristics (magnitude, distance, velocity, etc.) of other sources. → primary calibrators, → secondary calibrators.
Kabizandé, agent noun from kabizidan, → calibrate.
Fr.: libration diurne
Daily geometrical libration of the Moon arising from the fact that observers at different points on the Earth see the Moon from slightly different angles. As the Moon rises in the east, you are positioned on one side of our planet, and by the time it sets in the west. Earth's rotation has carried you to the other side. This change in position produces a slight → parallax effect that adds about another 1° of libration in longitude. Two other geometrical libration are → libration in longitude and → libration in latitude. See also → physical libration.
First Point of Libra
noqte-ye âqâz-e tarâzu (#)
Fr.: permier point de Balance
One of the two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic and the celestial equator crossed one another at → autumnal equinox several thousands years ago. Because of → precession, this equinoctial point no longer lies in Libra but in neighboring Virgo.
Fr.: calibration de flux
The → calibration of the flux received by a detector in terms of absolute units.
roxgard-e hendesi (#)
Fr.: libration géométrique
Libration resulting from changes in the location of the observer with respect to body. More specifically, a lunar libration motion that results from the Earth based observer seeing the Moon from different directions at different times. There are three types of geometrical libration: → libration in longitude, → libration in latitude, and → diurnal libration. See also → physical libration.
Fr.: calibration hélium-argon
A wavelength calibration of astronomical spectra using a helium-argon light source.
The Scales. An inconspicuous constellation in the southern hemisphere and a sign of the → Zodiac, at 15h 30m right ascension, 15° south declination. Abbreviation: Lib; genitive: Librae.
L. libra "balance," of obscure origin.
Tarâzu "balance, scales," Mid.Pers. tarâzên-, taraênidan "to weigh," Proto-Iranian *tarāz-, from *tarā- "balance, scale" (cf. Skt. tulā- "scales, balance, weight," from tul- "to weigh, make equal in weight, equal," tolayati "weighs, balances," L. tollere "to raise," Gk. talanton "balance, weight," Atlas "the Bearer" of Heaven," Lith. tiltas "bridge;" PIE base telə- "to lift, weigh") + Av. az- "to convey, conduct, drive," azaiti drives" (cf. Skt. aj- "to dive, sling," ájati "drives," ajirá- "agile, quick," Gk. agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," L. agere "to do, set in motion, drive," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, move," → act).
halâzân, roxgard (#)
Small oscillations of a → celestial body about its mean position. The term is used mainly to mean the Moon's libration caused by the apparent wobble of the Moon as it orbits the Earth. The Moon always keeps the same side toward the Earth, but due to libration, 59% of the Moon's surface can be seen over a period of time. This results from three kinds of libration working in combination: → libration in longitude, → libration in latitude, and → diurnal libration. See also: → geometrical libration, → physical libration.
L. libration- "a balancing."
Halâzân "to and fro motion, oscillation," literally
"a swing: a seat suspended by ropes on which a person may sit for swinging,"
from Gilaki halâcin "a swing," Ilâmi harazân
"a swing," variants (Dehxodâ) holucin, holu "a swing,"
probably from Proto-Ir. *harz- "to send, to set."
libration in latitude
Fr.: libration en latitude
A tiny oscillating motion of the Moon arising from the fact that the Moon's axis is slightly inclined relative to the Earth's. More specifically, the Moon's polar axis is tilted nearly 7° with respect to the plane of its orbit around Earth. Hence for half of each orbit we see slightly more of the north pole when its tipped toward us, and for the other half we see slightly more of its south pole. Libration in latitude displaces the mean center of the Moon north-south by between 6°.5 and 6°.9.
libration in longitude
Fr.: libration en longitude
A tiny oscillating motion of the → Moon arising from the fact that the Moon's orbit is not a precise circle but rather an → ellipse. Therefore, Moon is sometimes a little closer to the Earth than at other times, and as a result its → orbital velocity varies a bit. Since the Moon's rotation on its own axis is more regular, the difference appears as a slight east-west oscillation. Libration in longitude is the most significant kind of libration. It varies between about 4°.5 and 8°.1 because of gravitational perturbations in the Moon's orbit caused by the Sun.
kabizeš-e šidsanjik, ~ nursanjik
Fr.: calibration photométrique
A calibration which converts the measured relative magnitudes into an absolute photometry.
halâzân-e fiziki, roxgard-e ~
Fr.: libration physique
A real periodic variation in the rotation rate of a celestial object, as distinct from a → geometrical libration. In particular, slight oscillations in the → Moon's rotation caused by the → gravitational attraction of the Earth on the → equatorial bulge of the Moon's near side. The Moon's physical libration is about 0.03° in longitude and about 0.04° in latitude.
Fr.: calibrateur secondaire
An indicator of extragalactic distances that relies on → primary calibrators in our Galaxy. Secondary calibrators of the distance scale depend on statistical measures of the properties of a class of objects, such as the brightness of H II regions, globular clusters, red and blue stars, or the neutral hydrogen 21-cm line width or velocity dispersion (of spiral galaxies), etc. Same as secondary distance indicator.