compact elliptical galaxy
kahkešân-e hampak-e beyzivâr
Fr.: galaxie elliptique compacte
A galaxy belonging to a comparatively rare class of galaxies possessing very small radii and high central → surface brightnesses. The prototype is the → Local Group → dwarf galaxy M32. At the low mass end of the → early-type galaxy population, the well-known → mass-size relation splits into diffuse and compact branches. The compact branch is composed of compact elliptical galaxies (cEs) and may even extend to the regime of → ultracompact dwarfs. Compact ellipticals have → effective radii (Re) generally less than 0.6 kpc, while their diffuse counterparts, the → dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) or → dwarf spheroidals (dSphs), have Re ~ 0.6-3 kpc at similar mass. One formation scenario for cEs proposes that they are low-mass classical → elliptical galaxies, in accordance with the fact that they follow the same trend on the fundamental plane as the giant ellipticals. This implies formation through hierarchical mergers, as in "normal" ellipticals. Most cEs are notably more → metal-rich than dEs and are outliers from the → mass-metallicity relation of massive early type galaxies and low-mass galaxies in the Local Group. An alternative formation scenario addresses the problem of high metallicity by proposing that cEs are the remnants of larger, more massive galaxies. In this scenario, their disks are stripped by strong tidal interactions (→ tidal stripping) with an even more massive host galaxy, leaving only the compact, metal-rich bulges (Du et al., 2018, arxiv/1811.06778 and references therein).