An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



Number of Results: 4 Search : laser interferometer
evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA)

Fr.: eLISA   

A space project, initially → LISA, consisting of a configuration of three satellites, aimed to detect low frequency → gravitational waves that cannot be measured by ground-based detectors. The detection range will be from about 0.1 milliHz to 1 Hz. One "mother" and two "daughter" spacecrafts will be brought into an orbit around the Sun, which is similar to the Earth's orbit. The satellites will fly in a near-equilateral triangle formation, with a constant distance of one million km between, following the Earth along its orbit at a distance of around 50 million km. The mother spacecrafts carries two and each of the daughter spacecraft carry one free-flying → test masses that will be kept as far as possible free of external disturbances. The mutual distances of the test masses from satellite to satellite will be measured by means of high-precision, → Michelson-like laser → interferometry. In this way, the extremely small distance variations between the test masses of two satellites can be detected which are caused by the passages of a gravitational waves. The required measurement accuracy of the distances amounts to typically 1/100 of the diameter of a hydrogen atom (10-12 m) at a distance of two million km.

evolve; → laser; → interferometer; → space; → antenna.

laser interferometer
  اندرزنش‌سنج ِ لیزری   
andarzaneš-sanj-e leyzeri

Fr.: interféromètre laser   

An optical instrument using laser → beams to form → interference pattern. There are two types of laser interferometers: → homodyne and → heterodyne. A homodyne interferometer, like → Michelson interferometer, uses a single-frequency laser source. A → heterodyne interferometer uses a laser source with two close frequencies.

laser; → interferometer.

Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO)
  نپاهشگاه ِ موجهای ِ گرانشی با اندرزنش‌سنجی ِ لیزری   
nepâhešgâh-e mowjhâ-ye gerâneši bâ andarzaneš-sanji-ye leyzeri

Fr.: Observatoire d'ondes gravitationnelles par interférométrie laser   

A facility dedicated to the detection and measurement of cosmic → gravitational waves. It consists of two widely separated installations, or detectors, within the United States, operated in unison as a single observatory. One installation is located in Hanford (Washington) and the other in Livingston (Louisiana), 3,000 km apart. Funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), LIGO was designed and constructed by a team of scientists from the California Institute of Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and by industrial contractors. Construction of the facilities was completed in 1999. Initial operation of the detectors began in 2001. Each LIGO detector beams laser light down arms 4 km long, which are arranged in the shape of an "L." If a gravitational wave passes through the detector system, the distance traveled by the laser beam changes by a minuscule amount -- less than one-thousandth of the size of an atomic nucleus (10-18 m). Still, LIGO should be able to pick this difference up. LIGO directly detected gravitational waves for the first time from a binary → black hole merger (GW150914) on September 14, 2015 (Abbott et al., 2016, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 061102). The Nobel Prize in physics 2017 was awarded to three physicists (Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish, and Kip S. Thorne) for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves. LIGO had a prominent role in the detection of → GW170817, the first event with an → electromagnetic counterpart.

laser; → interferometer; → gravitational; → wave; → observatory.

Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)
  آنتن ِ فضایی ِ اندرزنش‌سنج ِ لیزری   
ânten-e fezâyi-e andarzanešsanj-e leyzeri

Fr.: Observatoire d'ondes gravitationnelles par interférométrie laser   

A collaborative project between → NASA and → ESA to develop and operate a space-based gravitational wave detector sensitive at frequencies between 0.03 mHz and 0.1 Hz. LISA detects gravitational-wave induced strains in → space-time by measuring changes of the separation between fiducial masses in three spacecraft 5 million km apart. Ultimately, NASA and ESA decided in 2011 not to proceed with the mission. LISA was not the highest ranked mission in the 2010 Decadal Survey and funding constraints prevented NASA from proceeding with multiple large missions ( → LISA pathfinder.

laser; → interferometer; → space; → antenna.