۱، ۲) پادیست؛ ۳، ۴) پادیستان
1, 2) pâdist; 3, 4) pâdistân
1) The action of opposing, resisting, or combating.
2) A person or group of people opposing, criticizing, or protesting something, someone,
or another group (Dictionary.com).
3) The position of a solar system body having its orbit outside that of the Earth
when the Earth is in a line between the Sun and the body.
At opposition the body has a solar → elongation
of 180°, and is closest to the Earth. It
will, in principle, be visible throughout the night. It will rise in the east as the Sun
sets in the west and it will set as the Sun rises. This is because,
at opposition, the body and the Sun are 12 hours apart. The inner planets
can never be in opposition. The opposite of opposition is
4) Two periodic quantities of the same frequency are said to be in opposition when
the → phase difference between them is one half of a
Verbal noun of → oppose.
Pâdist "standing against," from pâd-
"agaist, contrary to," → anti-,
+ ist present stem of istâdan "to stand"
O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand; to set;"
Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthâ- "to stand;"
Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;"
L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan;
PIE base *sta- "to set, stand").
Pâdistân, from pâdist + -ân suffix of place and time.