An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 112 Search : ram
-gram
   -نگاشت   
-negâšt (#)

Fr.: -gramme   

A combining form meaning "something drawn, written" (diagram, spectrogram, oscillogram).

From Gk. -gramma, combining form of gramma "something written or drawn," → graph.

-Negâšt, from negâšt "drawn, written;" p.p. of negâštan, negârdan "to paint, write," → graph.

acceleration parameter
  پارامون ِ شتاب   
pârâmun-e šetâb

Fr.: paramètre d'accéleration   

A measure of the departure from a constant rate of the acceleration of the Universe, expressed by: q(t) = R(t)R ..(t)/R .2(t), where R(t) represents the size of the Universe at time t. Traditionally, a negative sign is inserted in the above equation for the → deceleration parameter.

acceleration; → parameter.

Alderamin (α Cephei)
  ذراع ِ یمین   
Zerâ'-e Yamin

Fr.: Alderamin   

The brightest star in → Cepheus and a → subgiant star of apparent visual magnitude 2.44. Its → spectral type is A7 and distance 49 → light-years.

Alderamin, from Ar. al dhirâ' al-yamin "right arm" (of Cepheus), from Ar. dhirâ' "arm" + yamin "right".

Zerâ'-e Yamin, from Ar. al dhira al-yamin.

angular momentum parameter
  پارامون ِ جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای   
pârâmun-e jonbâk-e zâviye-yi

Fr.: paramètre de moment angulaire   

The ratio J/M, where J is the → angular momentum of a → rotating black hole and M the mass of the black hole.

angular; → momentum; → parameter.

Argand diagram
  نمودار ِ ارگان   
nemudâr-e Argand

Fr.: diagramme d'Argand   

A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.

Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.

backup program
  برنامه‌ی ِ یدکی   
barnâme-ye yadaki (#)

Fr.: programme de remplacement   

An auxiliary observing program to be carried out at telescope in case the atmospheric conditions make the main program unfeasible.

Backup, from → back + up; → program.

Barnâmé, → program; yadaki "reserve, substitute," from yadak "a led horse."

Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram
  نمودار ِ بالدوین-فیلیپس-ترلویچ   
nemudâr-e Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich

Fr.: diagram de Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich   

A set of nebular → emission line diagrams used to distinguish the ionization mechanism of → nebular gas. The most famous version consists of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [OIII] λ5007/Hβ. The next two more commonly used BPT diagnostics are [S II] λλ6717,6731/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [O I] λ6300/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ. These diagrams use strong, optical lines of close proximity in the ratios to limit → reddening and → spectrophotometric effects. They are able to clearly distinguish different classes of → ionization, for example → LINERs from normal → H II regions and → active galactic nuclei.

Baldwin, J. A., Phillips, M. M., Terlevich, R., 1981 PASP 93, 5; → diagram.

bias frame
  نورداد برای ِ ورک   
nurdâd barây-e varak

Fr.: pose pour biais   

CCD frame with exposure time set to zero and giving the bias level.

bias; → frame.

Nurdâd, → exposure; varakbias

butterfly diagram
  نمودار ِ پروانه‌وار   
nemudâr-e parvânevâr

Fr.: diagramme en papillon   

A graph on which the latitudes of → sunspots are plotted against time. It shows how sunspots migrate from high latitudes (30°- 40° north or south) to the solar equator (latitude of about 5°) during each → solar cycle, according to → Sporer's law. The shape of these distributions, when represented for both hemispheres, resembles the wings of a butterfly. The diagram was first created by Edward W. Maunder in 1904 to illustrate the solar cycle (M.S.: SDE).

Butterfly, from M.E. butterflye, from O.E. butorfleoge, from butor, butere "butter" floge "fly," but the etymology is not clear; → diagram.

Nemudâr, → diagram; parvânevâr "resembling a butterfly," from parvâné "butterfly" + -vâr similarity suffix.

CCD frame
  تک تصویر ِ سی سی دی   
tak-tasvir-e sisidi

Fr.: image CCD   

One of a series of astronomical images obtained using a CCD detector in particular for calibration purposes.

CCD; → frame.

color-color diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-رنگ   
nemudâr-e rang-rang (#)

Fr.: diagramme couleur-couleur   

A diagram based on two photometric colors usually representing the same class of astronomical objects.

color; → diagram.

color-luminosity diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-تابندگی   
nemudâr-e rang-tâbandegi

Fr.: diagramme couleur-luminosité   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the luminosity is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → luminosity, → diagram.

color-magnitude diagram
  نمودار ِ رنگ-برز   
nemudâr-e rang-borz

Fr.: diagramme couleur-magnitude   

A form of → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which the visual absolute magnitude Mv is the vertical axis and the → color index the horizontal axis.

color; → magnitude, → diagram.

comoving frame
  چارچوب ِ هم‌جنب   
cârcub-e hamjonb

Fr.: rérérentiel comobile   

A → reference frame that is attached to a moving object. The object in this frame is therefore at rest.

comoving; → frame.

conceptual diagram
  نمودار ِ بگرتی   
nemudâr-e begerti

Fr.: schéma conceptuel   

Same as → concept map.

conceptual; → diagram.

correlogram
  همبازانش‌نگار   
hambâzâneš-negâr

Fr.: corrélogramme   

A plot showing a summary of correlation at different periods of time.

Correlo-, from → correlation; → -gram.

deceleration parameter
  پارامون ِ واشتاب   
pârâmun-e vâšetâb

Fr.: paramètre de décéleration   

A parameter designating the rate at which the expansion of the Universe would slow down owing to the braking gravitational effect of the matter content of the Universe. It is expressed by: q(t) = -R(t)R ..(t)/R .2(t), where R(t) represents the size of the Universe at time t. See also → expansion parameter; compare with → acceleration parameter.

deceleration; → parameter.

density parameter
  پارامون ِ چگالی   
pârâmun-e cagâli

Fr.: paramètre de densité   

One of the four terms that describe an arranged version of the → Friedmann equations. They are all time dependent.
1) For matter: Ωm = 8πGρm/(3H2), where G is the → gravitational constant, ρm is the mean matter density, and H the → Hubble parameter. The matter density parameter is also expressed as Ωm = ρmcrit, where ρcrit is the → critical density.
2) For radiation: Ωr = 8πGρr/(3H2), where ρr is the radiation equivalent of matter density. This parameter is also expressed as Ωr = ρrcrit.
3) For the → cosmological constant: ΩΛ = Λc2/(3H2). Similarly, ΩΛ = ρΛcrit, where &rhoΛ = Λc2/(8πG) is sometimes referred to as the density of → dark energy.
4) For the → curvature of space-timeΩk = -kc2/(R2H2), where k is the → curvature constant and R the → cosmic scale factor.
Note that: Ωm + Ωr + ΩΛ + Ωk = 1, and Ωtotal = Ωm + Ωr + ΩΛ = 1 - Ωk.

density; → parameter.

diagram
  نمودار   
nemudâr (#)

Fr.: diagramme   

A graphic representation of the behavior of one or several variables.

From Fr. diagramme, from L. diagramma, from Gk. diagramma "that which is marked out by lines," from diagraphein "to mark out by lines," from dia- "across, out" + graphein "to write, draw," → -graphy.

Nemudâr agent noun of nemudan "to show," → display, from the past stem nemud + -âr, such as xâstâr, foruxtâr, padidâr, parastâr (contraction of *parastidâr).

Eddington parameter
  پارامون ِ ادینگتون   
pârâmun-e Eddington

Fr.: paramètre d'Eddington   

A → dimensionless parameter indicating the degree to which a star is close to the → Eddington limit. It is expressed as Γ = L / LEdd = κ L / (4πGMc), where L and M are the star luminosity and mass respectively, κ is the opacity, c the speed of light, and G the → gravitational constant. At the Eddington limit, Γ = 1, the star would become unbound. Because stellar luminosity generally scales with a high power of the stellar mass (LM3-4), → massive stars with M larger than 10 Msun generally have electron Eddington parameters of order Γ ≅ 0.1-1.

After Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → parameter.

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