Fr.: terre, sol
All loose, unconsolidated earth and organic materials above bedrock that support plant growth.
M.E. soile, O.Fr. soil "piece of ground, place," from L. solium "seat," meaning confused with that of L. solum "soil, ground."
Xâk, from Mid.Pers. xâk "earth, dust," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *āika-, from *āi- "earth, soil," cf. Av. āi- "earth, soil," Gk. aia "earth, land," + suffix -ka. The initial x- is a prothesis, as in xâya "egg" (Gershevitch 1962).