band-e irang, ~ xatâ
Fr.: barre d'erreur
On a graph displaying the results of a measurement, the dash used to indicate the confidence range of the value attributed to a quantity.
→ error; bar, from O.Fr. barre, from V.L. *barra "bar, barrier," or perhaps from Gaulish *barro "summit."
Band "that which closes, shuts, blocks," from bastan, band- "to shut, bind," from Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut," Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind); → error.
Fr.: barre galactique
An elongated bar-shaped structure composed of stars present in some spiral galaxies. About two-third of such galaxies contain bars that cross their centers. Bars, like → spiral arms, result from a → density wave in which stars take very elliptical orbits. They form when the → galactic disk dominates the → galactic bulge, → Ostriker-Peebles criterion. Bars play an extremely important role in a galaxy's evolution. The gravity from a bar is the mechanism that drives → interstellar gas from the outer parts of a → spiral galaxy inward toward the central regions, and into the galactic nucleus itself. This causes tremendous bursts of star formation. Therefore, a majority of massive stars are born in such starbursts in the nuclei of galaxies. Bars may also channel the material that falls into black holes within active galactic nuclei, releasing enormous power in radiation and particles from tiny regions at the centers of some galaxies. Bars disappear as galactic centers grow more massive (after some 2 to 8 Gyr).
varqe-ye Gâmof (#)
Fr.: barrière de Gamow
In nuclear physics, a potential barrier near the surface of the nucleus that inhibits the release of alpha particles.
Gamow, after George Gamow (originally Georgiy Antonovich Gamov), the Ukrainian born theoretical physicist and cosmologist, who discovered quantum tunneling; → barrier.
izobâr (#), izofešâr
1) Meteo.: A line connecting points having equal pressure.
From Gk. isobares "of equal weight," from → iso- + bar, from baros "weight," cognate with Pers. bâr "charge, weight" (Mid.Pers. bâr, from O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" L. brutus "heavy, dull, stupid, brutish;" Skt. bhara- "burden, load," bharati "he carries;" Mod.Pers. gerân "heavy;" Skt. guru; L. gravis; PIE *gwere- "heavy;" *bher- "to carry, give birth").
Fr.: processus isobare
A process taking place at constant pressure. → polytropic process.
Fr.: spin isobarique
Same as → isospin.
Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB)
bombârân-e sangin-e dirân
Fr.: Grand Bombardement Tardif
A cataclysmic event in the history of the → solar system, estimated to have occurred 3.9 billion years ago (about 600 million years after the formation of the → terrestrial planets) during which → asteroid and → comet impacts with Earth were some 20,000 times more frequent than today. It is estimated that during this period the terrestrial planets were bombarded with an object 1 km in size every 20 years. This hypothetical event lasted 50 to 150 million years. Several explanations have been put forward, among which the occurrence of an instability in the outer solar system which caused → orbital migration of small bodies from the → Kuiper belt inward.
→ late, with respect to the formation time of the planets; → heavy; bombardment, noun from bombard, from Fr. bombarder, from bombarde "mortar, catapult" from bombe, from It. bomba, probably from L. bombus "a booming sound," from Gk. bombos "deep and hollow sound."
One thousandth of a bar; a unit of atmospheric pressure. The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is 1.01325 bars or 1013.25 mb.
non-baryonic dark matter
mâde-ye siyâh-e nâbâriyoni
Fr.: matière noire non-baryonique
mâdde-ye nâbâriyoni (#)
Fr.: matière non-baryonique
Matter that, unlike the ordinary matter, is not made of baryons (including the neutrons and protons). It is proposed as a possible constituent of dark matter.
varqe-ye haste-yi (#)
Fr.: barrière nucléaire
The region of high potential energy through which a charged particle must pass on entering or leaving an atomic nucleus. → Gamow barrier.
mile-ye Šekârgar, ~ Orion
Fr.: barre d'Orion
A part of a → molecular cloud toward the → Orion Nebula viewed edge-on. It is the surface of interaction between the → H II region and its → associated molecular cloud. Same as the → Orion Bright Bar.
Orion Bright Bar
mile-ye deraxšân-e Šekârgar, ~ ~ Orion
Fr.: barre brillante d'Orion
A prominent emission ridge in the → Orion Nebula located approximately 2' southeast of the → Trapezium cluster. Various observations have suggested that it is an escarpment in the main → ionization front of the Nebula seen almost edge-on. The Orion Bar is one of the nearest and best-studied → photodissociation regions.
Pascal's barrel experiment
âzmâyeš-e celik-e Pascal
Fr.: expérience du tonneau de Pascal
An experiment carried out by Blaise Pascal in 1646 to demonstrate the hydraulic pressure. A long and narrow vertical pipe was connected to the content of a closed wooden barrel already full of water. He poured a small quantity of water into the pipe, whereby the height of the fluid within the pipe sharply increased. Due to the increase in hydrostatic pressure and → Pascal's law, the barrel could leak and even burst.
Fr.: plasma photon-baryon
Fr.: barrière de potentiel
Region in a field of force in which the potential is such that a particle, which is subject to the field, encounters opposition to its passage.
Fr.: barrière de Schottky
A junction between a metal and a semiconductor, which exhibits rectifying characteristics. A Schottky barrier has a very fast switching action and low forward voltage drop of about 0.3 volts, compared with 0.6 volts in silicon diodes, which use adjacent p-type and n-type semiconductors.
Named after Walter Hans Schottky (1886-1976), German physicist, who described the phenomenon; → barrier.
Fr.: barrière de Schwarzschild
An upper theoretical limit to the → eccentricity of orbits near a → supermassive black hole (SBH). It results from the impact of → relativistic precession on the stellar orbits. This phenomenon acts in such a way as to "repel" inspiralling bodies from the eccentric orbits that would otherwise lead to capture as → extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI)s. In other words, the presence of the Schwarzschild barrier reduces the frequency of EMRI events, in contrast to that predicted from → resonant relaxation. Resonant relaxation relies on the orbits having commensurate radial and azimuthal frequencies, so they remain in fixed planes over multiple orbits. In the strong-field potential of a massive object, orbits are no longer Keplerian but undergo significant perihelion precession. Resonant relaxation is only efficient in the regime where precession is negligible. The Schwarzschild barrier refers to the boundary between orbits with and without significant precession. Inside this point resonant relaxation is strongly quenched, potentially reducing inspiral rates.
divâr-e sedâ, varqe-ye ~
Fr.: mur du son
A sharp increase in aerodynamic drag that occurs as the speed of an aircraft approaches the speed of sound. Also called sonic barrier.
Fr.: barre stellaire