dynamical parallax didgašt-e tavânik Fr.: parallaxe dynamique A method for deriving the distance to a binary star. The angular diameter of the orbit of the stars around each other and their apparent brightness are observed. By applying Kepler's laws and the mass-luminosity relation, the distance of the binary star can be calculated. |
dynamical relaxation vâheleš-e tavânik Fr.: relaxation dynamique The evolution over time of a gravitationally → bound system consisting of N components because of encounters between the components, as studied in → stellar dynamics. Due to this process, in a → star cluster, → low-mass stars may acquire larger random velocities, and consequently occupy a larger volume than → high-mass stars. As a result, massive stars sink to the cluster centre on a time-scale that is inversely proportional to their mass. See also → mass segregation. → dynamical; → relaxation. |
dynamical stream râbe-ye tavânik Fr.: courant dynamique A group of stars pervading the Solar neighbourhood and travelling in the → Galaxy with a similar spatial velocity, such as the → Ursa Major star cluster, The term dynamical stream is more appropriate than the traditional term supercluster since it involves stars of di fferent ages, not born at the same place nor at the same time. A possible explanation for the presence of young groups in the same area as those streams is that they have been put there by the → spiral wave associated with their formation place, while kinematics of the older stars of the sample have also been disturbed by the same wave. The seemingly peculiar chemical composition of the Hyades-Pleiades stream suggests that this stream originates from a specific galactocentric distance and that it was perturbed by a spiral wave at a certain moment and radially pushed by the wave in the solar neighbourhood. This would explain why this stream is composed of stars sharing a common metallicity but not a common age (Famaey et al. 2005, A&A 430, 165). |
dynamical system râžmân-e tavânik Fr.: système dynamique A system composed of one or more entities in which one state develops into another state over the course of time. |
dynamical time zamân-e tavânik Fr.: temps dynamique The independent variable in the theories which describe the motions of bodies in the solar system. The most widely used form of it, known as Terrestrial Time (TT) or Terrestrial Dynamical Time (TDT) uses a fundamental 86,400 Systeme Internationale seconds (one day) as its fundamental unit. → Terrestrial Time; → Terrestrial Dynamical Time; → Barycentric Dynamical Time. |
dynamical time scale marpel-e zamâni-ye tavânik Fr.: échelle de temps dynamique 1) The characteristic time it takes a protostellar cloud to collapse
if the pressure supporting it against gravity were suddenly removed;
also known as the → free-fall time. → dynamical; → time-scale. |
dynamical variable vartande-ye tavânik Fr.: variable dynamique Mechanics: One of the variables used to describe a system in classical mechanics, such as coordinates (of a particle), components of velocity, momentum, angular momentum, and functions of these quantities. |
dynamics tavânik Fr.: dynamique The branch of → mechanics that explains how particles and systems move under the influence of forces. |
electrodynamic barqâtavânik, barqâtavânâ Fr.: électrodynamique Referring to electrons in motion. |
electrodynamics barqâtavânik Fr.: électrodynamique The phenomena, science, and applications of moving electric charges, as contrasted with → electrostatics. More specifically, the branch of physics concerned with the → interaction of → electric currents with → magnetic fields and → electric fields or with other electric currents. |
first law of thermodynamics qânun-e naxost-e garâtavânik Fr.: première loi de la thermodynamique The total energy of a → closed system is constant. This means that energy can be changed from one form to another, or transferred from one system to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. A mathematical formulation of the first law is: δQ = δU + δW, where δQ is the heat transferred to the system, δU the change in internal energy (resulting in a rise or fall of temperature), and δW is the work done by the system. → first; → law; → thermodynamics. |
fluid dynamics tavânik-e šârehâ Fr.: dynamique des fluides The branch of → fluid mechanics that deals with the movement of gases and liquids. |
galactic dynamics tavânik-e kakhešâni Fr.: dynamique galactique The study of the → motions of the → stars, → gas, and → dark matter in a → galaxy to explain the main → morphological and → kinematical features of the galaxy. |
Hamiltonian dynamics tavânik-e Hamilton Fr.: dynamique hamiltonienne The study of → dynamical systems in terms of the → Hamilton's equations. → Hamiltonian function; → dynamics. |
hydrodynamic hirdrotavânik Fr.: hydrodynamique Of or pertaining to → hydrodynamics. |
hydrodynamic equation hamugeš-e hirdrotavânik Fr.: équation hydrodynamique Fluid mechanics: A → partial differential equation which describes the motion of an element of fluid subjected to different forces such as pressure, gravity, and frictions. → hydrodynamic; → equation. |
hydrodynamic equilibrium tarâzmandi-ye hirdrotavânik Fr.: équilibre hydrodynamique The state of a star when all its internal forces are in equilibrium. The main forces are gas pressure, radiation pressure due to thermonuclear fusion that tends to disrupt the star, and the opposing gravity. → hydrostatic equilibrium. → hydrodynamic; → equilibrium. |
hydrodynamics hidrotavânik Fr.: hydrodynamique The branch of physics dealing with the motion, energy, and pressure of neutral → fluids. |
ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics. → ideal; → magnetohydrodynamics. |
Lagrangian dynamics tavânik-e lâgrânži Fr.: dynamique lagrangienne A reformulation of → Newtonian mechanics in which dynamical properties of the system are described in terms of generalized variables. In this approach the → generalized coordinates and → generalized velocities are treated as independent variables. Indeed applying Newton's laws to complicated problems can become a difficult task, especially if a description of the motion is needed for systems that either move in a complicated manner, or other coordinates than → Cartesian coordinates are used, or even for systems that involve several objects. Lagrangian dynamics encompasses Newton dynamics, and moreover leads to the concept of the → Hamiltonian of the system and a process by means of which it can be calculated. The Hamiltonian is a cornerstone in the field of → quantum mechanics. → Lagrangian; → dynamics. |