An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 41 Search : ice
iceberg
  یخ‌بِرگ، کوه ِ یخ   
yaxberg, kuh-e yax (#)

Fr.: iceberg   

A large mass of floating or stranded ice that has broken away from a glacier; usually more than 5 m above sea level.

Iceberg, half Anglicization, half adoption of Du. ijsberg "ice mountain," from ijs, → ice, + berg "mountain" (cf. Ger. Eisberg, Sw. isberg), from P.Gmc. *bergaz; cf. M.H.G. berc, O.H.G. berg "mountain;" cognate with Pers. boland, borz, berg, as below; PIE base *bheregh- "high, elevated."

Yaxberg, from yax, → ice, + berg "mountain, hill," in Laki dialect, related to Pers. boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."

interstice
  اندرجا   
andarjâ (#)

Fr.: interstice   

1) A minute gap between the adjacent parts of a body or objects close together.
2) In a crystal lattice, the empty space between adjacent atoms. The interstices are of two types: Tetrahedral-interstices and Octahedral-interstices. Also called → interstitial site.

From L. interstitium "space between; interval," from intersistere, from → inter- "between," + stem of stare "to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan, → stand

Andarjâ, literally "a place between," from andar "between," → inter-, + , → place.

justice
  داد، دادمندی، دادگری، دادگستری   
dâd, dâmandi, dâdgari, dâdgostari

Fr.: justice   

1) The quality of being just; righteousness, equitableness, or moral rightness.
2) The moral principle determining just conduct.
3) The administering of deserved punishment or reward (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. justice "justice, legal rights, jurisdiction," from L. iustitia "righteousness, equity," from iustus "upright, → just."

Dâd "justice, law" from Mid.Pers. dâd "law, justice, scriptures with legal content;" related to Mid.- and Mod.Pers. daheš "creation," dâdan "to give;" Av. dā- "to place upon, give;" → datum.
Dâdmandi noun from dâmand, → just.
Dâdgari "administration of justice," from dâdgar, literally "just doer," "an administrator of justice," from dâd + -gar, → -or.
Dâdgostari, from Dâdgostar, literally "justice spreader," with gostar, from gostardan "to spread, → expand."

lattice
  جاره   
jâré

Fr.: réseau   

1) A regular geometric arrangement of points in a plane or in space.
2) → Crystal lattice.
3) A structure in a nuclear reactor containing nuclear fuel and other materials arranged in a regular geometrical pattern.
4) Math.: A partially ordered set in which each two-element subset has both a greatest lower bound and a least upper bound.

From O.Fr. latiz "lattice," from late "lath, board, plank, batten" (Fr. latte); cf. O.H.G. latta "lath."

Jâré, from jarra "net; snare," Afghan jâli "reticulated garment," Tabari jarazin "grilled apparatus used in a watercourse to gather thatch and trash;" cf. Skt. jāla- "net, snare, lattice."

lattice energy
  کاروژ ِ جاره   
kâruž-e jâré

Fr.: énergie réticulaire   

The energy required to separate an ion from a → crystal to an infinite distance. In other words, the energy released when one → mole of a crystal is formed from gaseous ions.

lattice; → energy.

Little Ice Age
  عصر ِ یخ ِ کوچک   
asr-e yax-e kucek

Fr.: petit âge glaciaire   

A roughly 400-year period from the mid-16th through the mid-19th centuries when temperatures over much of Europe were unusually cold. Glaciers in the Alps advanced and European rivers froze much more often than during the past century. Harvests failed, livestock perished, and poor people suffered from famine and disease. The Little Ice Age coincided with two successive low → solar activity periods, the → Sporer minimum and the → Maunder minimum.

little; → ice; → age.

nonlinear device
  دستگاه ِ ناخطی   
dastgâh-e nâxatti

Fr.: dispositif non-linéaire   

An electronic device whose output is not directly proportional to its input. For example, in a → diode the current is a nonlinear function of the voltage; its voltage-current characteristics do not obey → Ohm's law.

nonlinear; → device.

pericenter
  پیرامرکز   
pirâmarkaz

Fr.: péricentre   

The point in the orbit of one component of a binary system which is closest to the center of mass of the system; opposite of → apocenter.

peri- + → center.

practice
  ۱) ورزیدن؛ ۲) ورزه   
1) varzidan (#); 2) varzé (#)

Fr.: 1) pratiquer; 2) pratique   

1a) To do habitually or regularly.
1b) To exercise or follow as a profession.
2a) Performance; the doing of something (contrasted with → theory). See also → praxis.
2b) Way of doing something that is common or habitual.
2c) Frequent or systematic repetition in doing something.

M.E. practisen, practizen; O.Fr. practiser "to practice," from M.L. practicare "to do, perform," from L.L. practicus "practical," from Gk. praktikos "practical."

1) Varzidan "to practice, perform; to accustom oneself to; to labor; to sow a field;" Mid.Pers. warz- "to work, do, practice;" Av. varəz- "to work, do, perform, exercise;" cf. Gk. ergon "work;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue;" E. work; PIE base *werg- "to work."
2) varzé, noun from present stem varz- + suffix .

service
  زاوری، زاورش   
zâvari, zâvareš (#)

Fr.: service   

1) A helpful act by somebody for somebody else as a job, duty, or favor.
2) A system or organization supplying some public demand, e.g. transportation, telephone, health.
3) A facility providing maintenance and repair.

M.E., from O.Fr. servise, from L. servitium "slavery, servitude," from servus "slave," servire "to serve," originally "be a slave;" cognate with Av. har- "to guard, watch," → server.

Zâvari "service" (Dehxodâ) → server.

service observing
  نپاهش با زاوَری، ~ ِ زاورشی   
nepâheš bâ zâvari, ~ zâvareši

Fr.: observation de service   

Observation approved by the selection committee of an observatory which is carried out by the staff astronomers of the observatory.

service; → observation.

similar matrices
  ماتریس‌های ِ همانند   
mâtrishâ-ye hamânand (#)

Fr.: matrices similaires   

Two → square matrices A and B that are related by B = X-1AX, where X is a square → nonsingular matrix.

similar; → matrix.

slice
  ۱) قاچ؛ ۲) قاچیدن   
1) qâc (#); 2) qâcidan

Fr.: 1) tranche; 2) trancher   

1) A thin, broad piece cut from something.
2) To cut into slices; divide into parts (Dictionary.com).

O.Fr. escliz "splinter, fragment" (Fr. éclisse), a back-formation from esclicier "to splinter, shatter, smash;" cf. O.H.G. slihhan.

Qâc, contraction of qârc, from karj "slice, a slice of melon; a piece cut out of the collar of a garment;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *kartaka-, from *kart- "to cut," cf. Av. karət- "to cut;" Skt. kart- "to cut," karəta- "knife;" Mid.Pers. kârt, → knife.

solstice
  خوریستان   
xoristân (#)

Fr.: solstice   

Either of the two points on the → ecliptic at which the apparent → longitude of the → Sun is 90° or 270°. Also the time at which the Sun is at either point. Solstices occur when the Earth's axis is oriented directly toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun to reach its northernmost and southernmost extremes. → summer solstice, → winter solstice.

M.E., from O.Fr. solstice, from L. solstitium "point at which the sun seems to stand still," from sol, → sun, cognate with Pers. xor, xoršid, hur, as below, + p.p. stem of sistere "to come to a stop, make stand still," akin to Pers. istâdan "to stand," as below.

Xoristân, is composed of two components. The first one xor "sun," variant hur; Mid.Pers. xwar "sun;" Av. hū-, hvar- "sun;" cf. Skt. surya-, Gk. helios, L. sol, cognate with E. sun, as above; PIE base *sawel- "sun." The second component istân "standing," from istâdan "to stand;" Mid.Pers. êstâtan; O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Av. hištaiti; cf. Skt. sthā- "to stand;" Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan; PIE base *sta- "to stand."

summer solstice
  خوریستان ِ تابستانی   
xoristân-e tâbestâni

Fr.: solstice d'été   

The moment in the northern hemisphere when the → Sun attains its highest → declination of 23°26' (or 23°.44) with respect the → equator plane. It happens when the Earth's axis is orientated directly toward the Sun, on 21 or 22 June. During the northern solstice the Sun appears to be directly overhead at noon for places situated at → latitude 23.44 degrees north, known as the → tropic of Cancer. The summer solstice can occur at any moment during the day. Two successive summer solstices are shifted in time by about 6 h. The summer solstice in the northern hemisphere is the → winter solstice in the southern hemisphere.

summer; → solstice.

Torricelli's law
  قانون ِ توریچلی   
qânun-e Torricelli

Fr.: loi de Torricelli   

In fluid dynamics, a theorem that relates the speed of fluid flowing out of an opening to the height of fluid above the opening: v = (2gh)1/2, where v is the exit velocity of the water, h is the height of the water column, and g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2). It was later shown to be a particular case of → Bernoulli's theorem.

After the Italian scientist Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647), who found this relationship in 1643.

twice
  دوبار   
dobâr (#)

Fr.: deux fois   

Two times, as in succession; on two occasions.

M.E. twies, from O.E. twiga, twigea "two times," from twi-, → two; cf. L. bis, Gk. dis, Skt. dvis, Av. biš.

Dobâr, from do, → two, + bâr "time, fold," from Mid.Pers. bâr; Proto-Ir. *uara-; cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vāra- "time, turn."

vertices
  تارکها   
târakhâ

Fr.: sommets, vertex   

Plural of → vertex.

vertex.

voice
  آواز   
âvâz (#)

Fr.: voix   

Sounds made when speaking or singing.

M.E., from O.Fr. voiz, from L. vox "voice, sound, utterance, cry, call, speech, sentence, word," related to vocare "to call;" akin to Pers. âvâz "voice," as below.

Âvaz "voice, sound, song," related to âvâ "voice, sound, song" (both prefixed forms), bâng "voice, sound, clamour" (Mid.Pers. vâng), vâžé "word," variants vâj-, vâk-, vâ-, vâz-, vât-; Av. vacah- "word," vaocanghê "to decalre" (by means of speech), from vac- "to speak, say;" cf. Skt. vakti "speaks, says," vacas- "word;" Gk. epos "word;" L. vox "voice;" PIE base *wek- "to speak."

water ice
  یخ ِ آب   
yax-e âb

Fr.: glace d'eau   

Water in the → solid state, produced by freezing → liquid water; frozen water. Ice forms at or below a temperature of 0°C. Ice is less dense than liquid water because it expands during the process of freezing. This is because the molecular arrangement taken by ice leads to an increase in volume and a decrease in density. → maximum density of water

water; → ice.

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