line of flow
Fr.: ligne d'écoulement
Same as → streamline.
1) kam (#), keh (#); 2) kutâh (#), pâyin (#)
Fr.: bas, faible
1) Below the average or expected degree, amount, or intensity.
Having or containing a relatively small amount.
From M.E. lah, from O.N. lagr "low," from P.Gmc. *lægaz (cf. O.Fris. lech, Du. laag, Ger. läge "low"), literally "that which is lying flat;" related to E. lie (v.).
Kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce,"
from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few."
Fr.: faible décalage vers le rouge
A redshift characterizing a near-by receding object.
Fr.: faible résolution
The quality of an instrument that lacks sufficient resolution for a specific observation. This is a relative quality, but presently a resolution below about 1 arcsecond.
low surface brightness galaxy (LSBG)
kahkešân bâ deraxšandegi-ye ruye-yi-ye kam
Fr.: galaxie à faible brillance de surface
A member of a particularly faint population of galaxies with a central → surface brightness below the brightness of the background sky. The central regions of many of them resemble a → dwarf galaxy, but most of the mass is contained in a large gaseous disk of low density that is observable only with long-exposure optical images or at radio wavelengths. Some are as massive as a large → spiral galaxy, for example Malin 1. The proportion of LSBGs relative to normal galaxies is unknown. They may however represent a significant fraction of mass in the Universe. LSBGs are thought to be primitive systems because they have total masses similar to normal galaxies, but have typically converted less than 10% of their gas into stars. Spiral LSBGs do not obey → Freeman's law.
owpas (#), jazr (#)
Fr.: marée basse
The state of the → tide when at its lowest level.
Fr.: marée basse
Also known as → low tide.
Fr.: neutrino faible énergie
A neutrino which is mainly produced in → nuclear processes, such as the ones in the → Sun (→ solar neutrino), or in the center of an exploding → supernova. Such neutrinos are, however, more energetic than those making up the → cosmic neutrino background.
xatt-e kamyoneš (#)
Fr.: raie de faible ionisation
A spectral line arising from a transition between atomic levels with an ionization potential below approximately 15 electron-volts.
low-ionization nuclear emission-line region
nâhiye-ye hasteyi bâ xatt-e gosili-ye kamyoneš (#)
Fr.: Noyau de galaxie à raies d'émission de faible ionisation
Same as → LINER.
Fr.: fibre à faible perte
Optical fiber that transmits a greater percentage of input light than does high-loss step-index fiber.
Fr.: galaxie de faible masse
A galaxy with stellar masses ≤ 109 → solar masses (Dawn K. Erb, 2015, Nature, 9 July).
setâre-ye kamjerm (#)
Fr.: étoile de faible masse
low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB)
dorin-e partow-e iks-e kam-jerm
Fr.: binaire X de faible masse
A member of one of the two main classes of
→ X-ray binary systems where one of the components is a
→ neutron star or → black hole
and the other component a → low-mass star with a spectral type A
or later. LMXBs mainly emit → soft X-rays.
The ratio of their optical to X-ray luminosities is less than 0.1. They belong
to → old stellar populations
with ages 5-15 × 109 years and are found in
→ globular clusters
and in the → bulge
of our → Milky Way
galaxy; some are also found in the disk.
Hercules X-1 is an example of LMXBs.
Fr.: environnement faible en métaux
A medium in which chemical elements have abundances smaller than the solar values.
Relatively low in position, rank, or order.
Comparative of → low.
havâsepehr-e zirin, javv-e ~
Fr.: atmosphère inférieure
Generally and quite loosely, that part of the atmosphere in which most weather phenomena occur (i.e., the → troposphere and lower → stratosphere); hence used in contrast to the common meaning for the → upper atmosphere. In other contexts, the term implies the lower troposphere (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).
Fr.: culmination inférieure
The instant of culmination when the star passes between the pole and the horizon, having an hour angle of 12h. Lower culmination for non-circumpolar objects occur below the horizon and is thus unobservable. Same as → inferior culmination. See also → upper culmination.
lower main sequence
rešte-ye farist-e zirin
Fr.: séquence principale inférieure
A → main sequence star whose mass is less than 1.5 Msun. Lower main sequence stars generate their energy chiefly through the → proton-proton chain. The core is surrounded by a → radiative zone above which lies a → convective envelope. In such stars the → opacity at the surface is high because of the low → surface temperature. Therefore, radiation cannot carry all the radiation because of high opacity. Thus, energy transfer takes place by → convection to the outer layer.
Fr.: manteau inférieur