# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 34 Search : quantum
 quantum mechanical system   راژمان ِ کو‌آنتوم مکانیکی   râžmân-e kuântom mekânikiFr.: système mécanique quantique   A → physical system that is specified by a → wave function.→ quantum; → mechanical; → system. quantum mechanics   کو‌آنتوم مکانیک، مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   kuântom mekânik, mekânik-e kuântomiFr.: mécanique quantique   A development of Newtonian mechanics based on the discrete character of energy (Planck 1900) and the wave motion of material particles (de Broglie 1924). It is relies on the consideration that energy state of a quantum mechanical system can be derived at a given instant by a function whose square of the modulus gives the probability distribution of the coordinates of the system. Quantum mechanics is essential for the treatment of all atomic processes. It holds also for ordinary large scale processes although in this case the deviations from Newtonian mechanics are negligible.→ quantum; → mechanics. quantum noise   نوفه‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   nufe-ye kuântomiFr.: bruit quantique   A random variation of signal due to fluctuations in the average rate of incidence of quanta on a detector. Quantum noise is described by the → Poisson distribution. Same as → photon noise and → shot effect.→ quantum; → noise. quantum number   عدد ِ کو‌آنتومی   adad-e kuântomi (#)Fr.: nombre quantique   A number used in quantum mechanics, specifying the state of an electron bound in an atomic system. The quantum numbers are integers or half integers and specify the number of units of energy, momentum, spin, etc. possessed by an electron.→ quantum; → number. quantum of action   کو‌آنتوم ِ ژیرش   kuântom-e žirešFr.: quantum d'action   Since → Planck's constant has the dimension of → energy × → time, its sometimes called the quantum of → action.→ quantum; → action. quantum phase transition (QPT)   گذرش ِ فاز ِ کو‌آنتومی   gozareš-e fâz-e kuântomiFr.: transition de phase quantique   A phase transitions that occurs at zero temperature as a function of a non-thermal parameter like → pressure, → magnetic field, or → chemical composition. In contrast to ordinary → phase transitions, which are associated with passage through a critical temperature, quantum phase transitions are associated with → quantum fluctuations, a consequence of → Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. For example, see → Bose-Einstein condensation.→ quantum; → phase; → transition. quantum state   استات ِ کو‌آنتومی   estât-e kuântomiFr.: état quantique   In → quantum mechanics, the state of a system as described by a set of → quantum numbers and represented by an → eigenfunction.→ quantum; → state. quantum theory   نگره‌ی ِ کو‌آنتومی   negare-ye kuântomi (#)Fr.: théorie quantique   The theoretical basis of modern physics which describes the behavior and interactions of elementary particles or energy states based on the assumptions that energy is subdivided into discrete amounts and that matter possesses wave properties. → quantum mechanics; → quantum field theory.→ quantum; → theory. quantum unitarity   یکاییگی ِ کو‌آنتومی   yekâyigi-ye kuântomiFr.: unitarité quantique   A property in → quantum mechanics whereby in a quantum system the sum of all probabilities of all possible outcomes must be 1. Quantum unitarity makes the modulous of a → quantum state invariant with time.→ quantum. → unitary. quantum walk   پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی   puyeš-e kuântomiFr.: marche quantique   A generalization of the classical concept of → random walk using quantum mechanical laws such as the → superposition principle and → interference of quantum amplitudes. In the classical version the particle moves in the position space with a certain probability. In contrast, in the quantum counterpart the particle moves by exploring multiple possible paths simultaneously with the amplitudes corresponding to the influence of different paths. The concept of quantum walk is studied in two standard forms: → continuous-time quantum walk and → discrete-time quantum walk. Quantum walk was first introduced by Aharonov et al. (1993, Phys. Rev. A, 48, 1687).→ continuous; → walk. quantum yield   بازده ِ کو‌آنتومی   bâzdeh-e kuântomiFr.: rendement quantique   In photochemistry, the number of defined events which occur per photon absorbed by the system.→ quantum; → theory. quantum-mechanical operator   آپارگر ِ مکانیک ِ کو‌آنتومی   âpârgar-e mekânik-e kuântomiFr.: opérateur en mécanique quantique   A linear → Hermitian operator associated with a physical quantity.→ quantum; → mechanics; → operator. relativistic quantum mechanics   کو‌آنتوم مکانیک ِ بازانیگی‌مند   kuântom mekânik-e bâzânigimandFr.: mécanique quantique relativiste   A quantum theory that incorporates special relativity, for example, → quantum electrodynamics. spin quantum number   عدد ِ کو‌آنتومی ِ اسپین   adad-e kuântomi-ye espinFr.: nombre quantique de spin   An integer or half-integer on which the magnitude of a particle's → spin angular momentum depends. It is expressed in units of → Planck's constant divided by 2π. Called also spin, denoted s. The spin of a particle can only have a value that is zero or a multiple of 1/2. Particles with half-integer spins, 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, ..., are → fermions. Particles with integer spin (0, 1, 2, ...) are called → bosons.→ spin; → quantum; → number.

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