An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 499
become
  شدن   
šodan (#)

Fr.: devenir   

To come, change, or grow to be.

M.E. becumen; O.E. becuman "happen, come about," also "meet with, arrive;" akin to Du. bekomen, O.H.G. biqueman "obtain," Ger. bekommen, Goth. biquiman; from be- a prefix denoting several meanings, and → come.

Šodan "to become, to go, to pass, to change," from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. š(ii)auu-, šiyav- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

becquerel
  بکرل   
becquerel (#)

Fr.: becquerel   

The → SI unit of → radioactivity. One becquerel corresponds to the → disintegration of one atom per second. Abbreviation: Bq. → curie.

Named for the French physicist Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), who discovered radioactivity in 1896.

Bedin I
  بدین I   
Bedin I

Fr.: Bedin I   

A → dwarf spheroidal galaxy belonging to the → Local Group that was discovered serendipitously in 2019. Bedin I was detected using extremely deep → HST images (V ~ 30 mag) obtained for the purpose of investigating the → white dwarf cooling track of the Galactic → globular cluster NGC 6752. Bedin I is too faint and too close to the core of NGC 6752 for detection in earlier surveys. The discovery paper derives a → distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 29.70 ± 0.13 mag from the observed → red giant branch, i.e. ~ 8.7 → megaparsecs (~ 30 million → light-years), and a size of ~ 840 × 340 pc, about one-fifth the size of the → Large Magellanic Cloud. This object is most likely a relatively isolated → satellite galaxy of the nearby great → spiral galaxy NGC 6744. The study suggests the presence of an old (~ 13 Gyr) and → metal-poor ([Fe/H] ~ -1.3) population in Bedin I.

Named after the first author of the discovery paper, L. R. Bedin et al., 2019, MNRAS 484, L54.

bedrock
  سنگ‌بستر   
sangbastar (#)

Fr.: socle   

Solid → rock present beneath any → soil, → sediment, or other surface cover. In some locations it may be exposed at earth's surface.

Bedrock, from bed (O.E. bed, from P.Gmc. *badjam "sleeping place dug in the ground;" PIE *bhedh- "to dig, pierce") + → rock.

Sangbastar, from sang "stone, rock," → stone, + bastar "bed" (Mid.Pers. vistarak, cognate with Mod.Pers. gostar "a bed; spreading; scatterer," Av. star-, starəta- "spread," from star- "to spread," Skt. strnâti).

beech
  راش   
râš (#)

Fr.: hêtre   

Any tree of the genus Fagus, especially Fagus sylvatica of Europe, having smooth grayish bark. In Iran Fagus orientalis populates Caspian highland forests from Âstârâ to Gorgân.

M.E. beche, from O.E. becew; cf. Dutch beuk, Ger. Buche, from PIE root *bhagos "beech tree;" also cf. Gk. phegos "oak," L. fagus "beech," Rus. buzina "elder."

Râš, as named in Gilân, Râmsar, Šahsavâr, Kalârdašt. Its other names: (Mâzandarân) mers, (Ammaârlu, Manjil) râj, (Tevâleš, Mt. Dorfak) aluš, alâš, âlâš, (Nur) celer, celar (Iranica).

Beehive Cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ کندو   
xuše-ye kandu

Fr.: amas de la ruche   

Praesepe.

behavior
  رفتار   
raftâr (#)

Fr.: comportement   

Manner of behaving or acting.

M.E. behavour, from behaven "to behave," altered by model havour, from O.Fr. avoir "to have."

Raftâr "behavior, walking, going," from raft past tense stem of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack") + -âr prefix forming action noun.

Bekenstein formula
  دیسول ِ بکنشتاین   
disul-e Bekenstein

Fr.: formule de Bekenstein   

The mathematical expression giving the → entropy, S, of a → black hole as a function of the area of its → event horizon, A: S = (kc3A)/(4Għ), where k is → Boltzmann's constant, ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, and G the → gravitational constant. It can also be expressed by S = (kA)/(4lP2), where lP is the → Planck length. The existence of this entropy led to the prediction of the → Hawking radiation, because an entropy is associated with a temperature and a temperature to a → thermal radiation. The entropy of a black hole increases continuously because the fall of material into it increases its area.

For Jacob D. Bekenstein (1947-), an Israeli theoretical physicist, who contributed to the foundation of black hole thermodynamics; → formula.

bel (B)
  بل   
bel (#)

Fr.: bel   

A dimensionless unit to measure sound. One bel designates a ratio 10:1 between two quantities, P1 and P0, which have the dimension of a power: n [B] = log (P1/P0), in Bel units, with → natural logarithm. If one sound is 2 bels louder than another, this means the louder sound is 100 times more intense than the fainter one. It is also common to use this definition for quantities that are proportional to a power, such as energy, work, intensity, or voltage. The bel was too large for everyday use, so the → decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 bel, is more commonly used.

This unit was put forward by engineers of the Bell telephone network in 1923 and named in honor of the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922), who also invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.

Belinda (Uranus XIV)
  بلیندا   
Belindâ

Fr.: Belinda   

One of the small satellites of → Uranus discovered from the Voyager 2 photographs taken during its encounter with the planet in 1986.

Named after the heroine in Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock.

Bell's inequality
  ناهموگی ِ بل   
nâhamugi-ye Bell

Fr.: inégalité de Bell   

Any of a large number of inequality relations developed to study the → hidden variable hypothesis suggested in the → EPR paradox. Using Bell's inequalities, the → Aspect experiment showed that no local hidden variable theory can make predictions in agreement with those of quantum mechanics. If, in a measurement, the inequality is violated, the measurement is in agreement with the predictions of the quantum theory. If the equality is satisfied, it suggests that a classical, causal, and local model is adequate to explain the outcome of the measurements. See also → quantum entanglement.

John Stewart Bell (1928-1990); → inequality.

Bellatrix (γ Orionis)
  بلاتریکس، مرزم   
Bellatriks, Merzam

Fr.: Bellatrix   

A bright, blue → giant star ( → spectral type B2 III), one of the main stars of the constellation → Orion. With a visual magnitude of 1.64, it is about 1000 times more luminous than the Sun, and lies at a distance of 243 → light-years.

From L. bellatrix "a female warrior," fem. of bellator, from bellum "war."

Merzam, Ar. name of the star; its other name is Nâjed.

belong
  پرگتیدن، پرگت داشتن   
pargetidan, parget dâštan

Fr.: appartenir   

1) (with preposition to) To be the property of.
2) (with preposition to) To be a part or adjunct of.

M.E. belongen, from be- intensive prefix, + longen "to go," from O.E. langian "pertain to, to go along with;" akin to Du. belangen, Ger. belangen; of unknown origin.

Pargetidan, literally "to surround, to relate with" (on the model of L. pertinere "pertain," Skt. parigraha- "surrounding; relation to"), from parget "to hold, seize, take around," from par- "around," → peri-, + get "to take, sieze," as in Tâleši gate "to take," Târi gata, Sorxeyi, Lâsgardi, Semnâni, Šâhmerzâdi -git- "take, seize," variants of gereftan "take, hold," → concept.

belongs to
  می‌پرگتد، پرگت دارد   
mipargetad, parget dârad

Fr.: appartient   

If x is an → element of a → set S, then x belongs to S and this is written x ∈ S.

Third person present verb of → belong.

belt
  کمربند   
kamarband (#)

Fr.: ceinture   

A strip of leather or cloth worn around the waist. Something that resembles this type of band, e.g. → Gould's Belt, → Belt of Venus.

O.E. belt, from P.Gmc. *baltjaz, from L. balteus "girdle;" → Orion.

Kamarband "belt," from kamar "waist" (Mid.Pers. kamar "waist; belt, girdle," Av. kamarâ- "belt") + band "a band, tie, belt."

Belt of Orion
  کمربند ِ شکارگر، ~ اریون   
kamarband-e Šekârgar, ~ Oryon

Fr.: Baudrier d'Orion   

Orion's Belt.

belt; → Orion.

Belt of Venus
  کمربند ِ ناهید   
kamarband-e Nâhid

Fr.: Ceinture de Vénus   

A pink to brownish border above the horizon separating the Earth's dark shadow on the sky from the sky above it. The Belt of Venus appears during a cloudless twilight just before sunrise or after sunset. It is due to scattered red sunlight in the atmosphere. Also called anti-twilight arc.

belt, → Venus.

BepiColombo
     
BepiColombo

Fr.: BepiColombo   

A → European Space Agency (ESA) mission aimed at studying the composition, geophysics, atmosphere, magnetosphere, and history of → Mercury, the least explored planet in the inner → Solar System. It will be launched in 2018. Among several investigations, BepiColombo will make a complete map of Mercury at different wavelengths. It will chart the planet's mineralogy and elemental composition, determine whether the interior of the planet is molten or not, and investigate the extent and origin of Mercury's magnetic field. BepiColombo is a joint mission between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), executed under ESA leadership.

Named after Giuseppe (Bepi) Colombo (1920-1984), a scientist who studied Mercury's orbital motion in detail as well as orbits and interplanetary travel in general.

Berenice's Hair
  گیسو   
Gisu

Fr.: Chevelure de Bérénice   

Coma Berenices.

Bernoulli equation
  هموگش ِ برنویی   
hamugeš-e Bernoulli

Fr.: équation de Bernoulli   

The equation expressing → Bernoulli's theorem: P + (1/2)ρV2 + ρgz = constant, where P is the fluid → pressure, V is → velocity, ρ is → density, g is the acceleration due to → gravity, and z is the vertical reference → level. The theree terms are called → static pressure, → dynamic pressure, and → hydrostatic pressure, respectively. The Bernoulli equation states that the total pressure along a → streamline is → constant.

Bernoulli's theorem; → equation.

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