A grey, very hard metallic chemical element; symbol Be. → Atomic number 4; → atomic weight 9.01218; → melting point about 1,278°C; → boiling point 2,970°C (estimated); → specific gravity 1.85 at 20°C; → valence +2. Beryllium occurs as beryl, from which it is obtained by electrolysis. Used for light alloys which are corrosion resistant. Beryllium was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829) in 1798. First isolated by Friedrich Wöhler (1800-1882) in 1828.
From L. beryll(us), from beryl, a mineral, beryllium aluminum silicate, Be3Al2Si6O18, M.E. beril, from O.Fr., from L. berillus, from Gk. beryllos, + → -ium.
From Friedrich Wilhelm Bessel (1784-1846), German astronomer and mathematicians, who made fundamental contributions to positional and spherical astronomy.
Fr.: équation de Bessel
A linear second-order differential equation, the solutions to which are called Bessel functions.
Hamugeš, → equation.
Fr.: étoile de Bessel
Same as → 61 Cygni, the first star whose distance was measured, by Friedrich Bessel in 1838.
Fr.: besselien, de Bessel
Besselian day number
šomâre-ye ruz-e Besseli
Besselian star constant
pâyâ-ye axtari-ye Besseli
Fr.: constante stellaire besselienne
Any of the eight quantities denoted by a, b, c, d (for → right ascension) and a', b', c', d' (for → declination) used in conjunction with → Besselian day numbers for the reduction of star's → mean catalog place.
Fr.: année besselienne
The period taken for the right ascension of the mean Sun to increase by 24 hours. The starting point is when the mean Sun's longitude is 280°, corresponding roughly to January 1. It is virtually the same as the tropical year.
Fr.: meilleur ajustement
In a scatter plot, a mathematical line or curve that passes as near to as many of the data points as possible.
Best, M.E., from O.E. betst, akin toi O.E. bot "remedy." Fit, from M.E. fitten "to marchal troops," from or akin to M.Dutch vitten "to be suitable."
Behtarin supperlative of beh "good, fine" (Mid.Pers. veh "better, good," O.Pers. vahav-, vahu-, Av. vah-, vohu- "good," cf. Skt. vasu- "good," Hittite wasu-, Gaulish vesus "good") + saz, from sazidan "to be fit, proper," from Mid.Pers. saz, sazistan "to be fitting, proper."
Fr.: Beta Andromedae
The brightest star in the constellation → Andromeda with an average → apparent visual magnitude of 2.05. It is a red (B - V = +1.57), → giant star of → spectral type M0 III. Beta And lies at a distance of 197 ± 7 → light-years (61 ± 2 → parsecs). It has a mass of 3-4 Msun (→ solar mass), a → luminosity of ~ 2,000 Lsun (→ solar luminosity), and a radius of 100 Rsun (→ solar radius). Its other designations include: Mirach, Merach, Mirac, Mizar, 43 Andromedae, BD+34°198, HD 6860, HIP 5447, HR 337, LTT 10420, and SAO 54471. Beta And happens to lie nearly along the → line of sight to the galaxy → NGC 404. This galaxy, known as → Mirach's Ghost, is visible seven arc-minutes away.
Fr.: bêta Céphée
The second brightest star in the constellation → Cepheus and the prototype of → Beta Cephei variables. It is a variable B2 type → giant star with a visual magnitude of 3.23 varying with a period of 4.57 hours. Its mass is a dozen times that of the Sun. Beta Cephei is a → triple system lying at a distance of about 600 → light-years. The inner → spectroscopic companion, → spectral type A, is only about 45 AU away, and takes around 90 years to orbit. The third visual companion is at least 2400 AU away, with an orbital period of at least 30,000 years.
Beta (β), the second letter of the Gk. alphabet; → Cepheus.
Beta Cephei variable
vartande-ye betâ Kefeusi
Fr.: variables bêta Céphée
A variable star, of early B or late O types, undergoing radial pulsations with short periods (< 1 day). Beta Cephei stars are confined within a narrow band of the → H-R diagram above the upper → main sequence. They are believed to be near the end of core hydrogen-burning stars of approximately 10 to 20 solar masses. The famous bright stars → Spica and → Mirzam belong to this family.
tabâhi-ye betâ (#)
Fr.: désintegration bêta
The transformation of a → radioactive nuclide in which a → beta particle is emitted. In beta minus decay, a → neutron changes into a → proton, → antineutrino, and → electron: n → p + e + ν-. Beta plus decay involves the conversion of a proton to a neutron, → positron, and → neutrino: p → n + e+ + ν.
Beta (β), from → beta particle; → decay.
beta minus decay
tabâhi-ye betâ kaman
Fr.: désintegration bêta moins
zarre-ye betâ (#)
Fr.: particule bêta
Beta Pictoris (β Pic)
Fr.: bêta Pictoris
The second brightest star, with an apparent magnitude of 3.86, in the southern constellation → Pictor. Beta Pic is a young star of spectral type A lying 63 → light-years away. It has a luminosity 8.6 times that of the Sun and its surface temperature is 8250 K. Beta Pic is surrounded by a dust and gas disk stretching 400 A.U. away from the star in each direction, 10 times the average distance of Pluto from the Sun. The disk is not symmetric, one side is brighter than the other. Moreover, it has an inner clear zone about the size of our solar system (some 30 A.U.). Recently a probable giant → exoplanet lying in the disk has been imaged.
Beta (β), the second letter of the Gk. alphabet; → Pictor.
beta plus decay
tabâhi-ye betâ bišan
Fr.: désintegration bêta plus
Betelgeuse (α Orionis)
The → red supergiant that is the second brightest star in the constellation → Orion. Betelgeuse is one of the biggest stars known with a size of almost 1,000 times larger than the Sun, corresponding to an angular diameter of 43.76 ± 0.12 milli-arcseconds (Perrin et al. 2004, A&A 418, 675). It is a → semiregular variable whose → apparent visual magnitude varies between 0.2 and 1.2 shining very rarely more brightly than its neighbor → Rigel. The energy released by Betelgeuse is estimated to be only 13% in the form of visible light, with most of its radiation being at → infrared wavelengths. The distance of Betelgeuse is 643±146 → light-years (Harper et al. 2008, AJ 135, 1430), while its luminosity is about 140,000 times that of the Sun (→ solar luminosity). Its → spectral type is M2 Iab, its → surface temperature about 3,600 K, and its → initial mass 10 to 20 → solar masses (Msun). Neilson & Lester (2011, arXiv:1109.4562) recently proposed a mass of 11.6 (+5.0, -3.9) Msun for Betelgeuse, while Dolan et al. (2008, BAPS 53, APR.S8.6) obtained about 21 Msun. Its → rotation period is estimated to be about 17 years (Uittenbroek et al. 1998, AJ 116, 2501). Recent observations with the → Very Large Telescope resolve not only the apparent surface of Betelgeuse, but also reveal a large and previously unknown plume of gas extending into space from the surface of the star (Kervella et al. 2009, A&A 504, 115). The plume extends to at least six times the diameter of the star, corresponding to the distance between the Sun and Neptune. This detection suggests that the whole outer shell of Betelgeuse is not shedding matter evenly in all directions. More recently, an image of the surface of the star was obtained using long → baseline → interferometry at infrared wavelengths (Haubois et al. 2009, A&A 508, 923). It shows the presence of an irregular flux distribution possibly caused by enormous → convective cells. A very large dusty envelope has also been observed at larger distances from the star (Kervella et al. 2011, A&A 531, A117).
Betelgeuse, from Ar. Ibt al-Jauza' (
Ebtoljowzâ, from Ar. Ibt al-Jauza'.
In honor of Hans Bethe (1906-2005), Nobel Prize in Physics (1967), for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. The unit name was proposed by Steven Weinberg (1933-) in 2006 for Bethe's contributions to the supernova research aftre 1980.