An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -fy fac fal far fee Fer FHB fie fin Fir Fiv Fle flu fly foo for For Fou Fra fre Fri ful fuz > >>

Number of Results: 446

Fr.: facteur   

1) One that actively contributes to the production of a result.
2) Math.: Any of the numbers or symbols that when multiplied together form a → product.

M.Fr. facteur "agent, representative," from L. factor "doer or maker," from facere "to do" (cf. Fr. faire, Sp. hacer); from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do;" cf. Skt. dadhati "puts, places;" Av. dadaiti "he puts;" Hitt. dai- "to place;" Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place;" Lith. deti "to put;" Rus. det' "to hide," delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon; Ger. tun; O.S., O.E. don "to do."

Karvand, from kar- root of Mod.Pers. verb kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make") + -vand a suffix forming adjectives and agent nouns.

factor tree
  درخت ِ کروند   
deraxt-e karvand

Fr.: arbre des facteurs   

A diagram representing a systematic way of determining all the prime factors of a number.

factor; → tree.

  ۱) کرونده؛ ۲) کروندی   
1) karvandeh; 2) karvandi

Fr.: factoriel   

1) (n.) The product of all the positive integers from 1 to n, denoted by symbol n!
2) (adj.) of or pertaining to factors or factorials.

factor + -ial, from L. -alis, → -al.

  کروندیدن، کروند گرفتن   
karvandidan, karvand gereftan

Fr.: factoriser   

The operation of resolving a quantity into factors.

factor + → -ize.


Fr.: facule   

A bright area of the → photosphere of the Sun visible in white light and best seen near the solar limb, although they occur all across the Sun. Faculae raise several hundred kilometers above the photosphere and are associated with → sunspots. They often appear immediately before the formation of a sunspot group and remain visible for several days or weeks after the disappearance of the spots. Faculae are formed when a strong magnetic field heats a region of the photosphere to higher temperatures than the surrounding area.

Facula, from L. fac-, fax "torch" + -ula, → -ule.

Perisk, periska, biriske in Lori, Laki, and Kurd. dialects "spark" (Lârestâni pelita), probably related to Lori porpor "blazing charcoal," Gilaki bur, biur "smokeless red fire;" cf. Tokharian por, puwar "fire;" Gk. pyr "fire;" Hitt. pahhur "fire;" Skt. pū- "to cleanse;" E. fire; O..E. fyr, from P.Gmc. *fuir (cf. O.N. fürr, M.Du. vuur, Ger. Feuer); PIE base *paewr- "fire."

Fahrenheit scale
  مرپل ِ فارنهایت   
marpel-e Fahrenhait

Fr.: échelle de Fahrenheit   

A temperature scale (°F) in which the → freezing point of → water is 32 degrees and the → boiling point is 212 degrees; the points are placed 180 degrees apart. It converts to the → Celsius scale by the formula: C = (5/9)(F - 32). See also → Kelvin scale, → Rankine scale, → Reaumur scale.

Developed by the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736); → scale.


Fr.: échouer, faillir   

1) To be unsuccessful in achieving something expected, attempted, or desired.
2) To neglect to do something.
3) To be e unsuccessful in an examination.

M.E. failen, from O.Fr. falir "be lacking, miss, not succeed; come to an end; make a mistake; be dying," from Vulgar L. *fallire, from L. fallere "to trip, cause to fall;" figuratively "to deceive, trick, dupe, cheat; fail, be lacking or defective."

Qâvidan, from Choresmian γaw "to fail, to commit a fault;" cf. Av. gau- "to commit a sin;" Parthian (+*fra-) pargaw- "to owe, to lack;" Ossetian qaewyn/qyd "to be in need of something, to lack;" Proto-Ir. *gaHu- "to be faulty, wanting; to need;" PIE *gheHu- "to be faulty, lacking, insufficient;" cf. Old L. hauelod "insufficient, false," L. hau(d) "not;" O.Irish gáu, gó; Welsh gau "lie" (Cheung 2007).


Fr.: échec, défaillance   

1) An act or instance of failing; lack of success.
2) A state of inability to perform a normal function.

Verbal noun from → fail.

  نزار، کمتاب، کمنور   
nazâr, kamtâb (#), kamnur (#)

Fr.: faible   

Lacking brightness, clearness, loudness, strength, etc.

From O.Fr. faint "soft, weak, sluggish," p.p. of feindre "to avoid one's duty by pretending, pretend," from L. fingere "to devise, fabricate," originally "to shape, invent, to form," from PIE base *dheigh- "to form, shape."

Nazâr, from Mid.Pers. nizâr "weak, feeble" (variant zâr), zarmân "old man, deterioration;" Av. zairina- "exhausting, slackening," zaurura- "weak through old age, decrepit;" cf. Skt. jára- "wearing out, exhaustion," jaranā- "old, decayed," jarimán- "weakness through old age," Gk. geron "old man," L. granum "grain;" PIE base *ger- "wear away."
Kamtâb, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few" + tâb "light; heat, warmth; illuminating," from tâbidan, tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer; to heat, be/become hot," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "warm."
Kamnur, from kam, as above, + nur, → light.

faint early Sun paradox
  پارادخش ِ خورشید ِ کمتاب ِ آغازین   
pârâdaxš-e xoršid-e kamtâb-e âqâzin

Fr.: paradoxe du Soleil jeune faible   

The contradiction between a colder Sun (about 30% less luminous) some 4 billion years ago, as predicted by models, and the warm ancient Terrestrial and Martian climates derived from geological evidence.

faint; → early; → sun; → paradox.

faint star
  ستاره‌ی ِ کمنور، ~ نزار   
setâre-ye kamnur (#), ~ nazâr

Fr.: étoile faible   

For unaided eye, a star of visual magnitude around 5-6. Otherwise, on an image, a star that has a lesser brightness compared to others of the same field.

faint; → star.

imân (#)

Fr.: foi   

1) Confidence or trust in a person or thing.
2) Belief that is not based on proof.
3) A system of religious belief (

M.E. feith fei, fai "faithfulness to a trust or promise; loyalty to a person; honesty, truthfulness," from Anglo-Fr. and O.Fr. feid, foi "faith, belief, trust, confidence; pledge," from L. fides "trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief," from root of fidere "to trust,"from PIE root *bheidh- "to trust, confide, persuade."

Imân, loan from Ar. al-imân "faith, belief, trust."

oft (#)

Fr.: chute   

A collected meteorite whose arrival on Earth is witnessed, as opposed to a → find.

M.E. fallen, from O.E. feallan, from P.Gmc. *fallanan (cf. O.N. falla, O.H.G. fallan), from PIE base *phol- "to fall" (cf. Arm. p'ul "downfall;" Lith. puola "to fall").

Oft, stem of oftâdan "to fall;" Mid.Pers. opastan "to fall," patet "falls;" Av. pat- " to fly, fall, rush," patarəta- "winged;" cf. Skt. patati "he flies, falls," pátra- "wing, feather, leaf;" Gk. piptein "to fall," pterux "wing;" L. penna "feather, wing;" O.E. feðer "feather;" PIE base *pet- "to fly, rush."


Fr.: erreur, illusion, faux raisonnement   

Logic: An → error in → reasoning that renders an → argument logically → invalid such as affirming the → consequent and → denying the → antecedent.

From L. fallacia "deception," from fallere "to deceive, trick, cheat; fail, be defective."

Titâl (Dehxodâ) "deceit; deceiving speech, fallacious words;" cf. Tabari titâl hâ kərdan "to deceive (somebody) wheedlingly," Pashtu titâl "duplicity, guile, deceit, fraud."

zif (#)

Fr.: faux   

1) Not true or correct; erroneous.
2) Not properly, accurately, or honestly made, done, or adjusted.
false color, → false dawn, → false nucleus, → false vacuum.

From O.Fr. fals, faus, from L. falsus "deceived, erroneous, mistaken," p.p. of fallere "to deceive, disappoint."

Zif, from Tâleši saf "wrong," from Mid.Pers. zêfân, zaspân "wrong, vile;" in classical Pers. dictionaries zif "churlishness; sin."

false color
  رنگ ِ زیف   
rang-e zif

Fr.: fausse couleur   

In imaging technique, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. → true color.

false; → color.

false dawn
  بامداد ِ زیف، ~ دروغین   
bâmdâd-e zif, ~ doruqin

Fr.: aube trompeuse   

An unusually early glow of the horizon near the rising sun during certain times of the year. This early glow does not originate directly from the Sun, but is rather caused by → zodiacal light. It may be mistaken for a sunrise.

false; → dawn.

false nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ زیف   
haste-ye zif

Fr.: faux noyau   

An especially concentrated region in the → coma of some → comets, representing the dense cloud of inner coma rather than the much smaller true nucleus. Also called apparent nucleus and → pseudo-nucleus.

false; → nucleus.

false vacuum
  خلاء ِ زیف   
xala'-e zif

Fr.: faux vide   

A peculiar, hypothetical state of matter which is predicted to exist by current theories of → elementary particles, including the → grand unified theories. Unlike the ordinary vacuum, a false vacuum has a large → energy density and a large → negative pressure. A false vacuum is the driving force behind the rapid expansion in the → inflationary model of the → Universe.

false; → vacuum.

  زیفیدنیگی، زیفش‌پذیری   
zifidanigi, zifešpaziri

Fr.: falsifiabilité   

Philosophy of science: The concept according to which a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit consideration of the possibility of its being false. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), falsifiability is the crucial feature of scientific hypotheses. Any theory not falsifiable is said to be unscientific.

falsifiable; → -ity.

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