An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 432
guycé (#)

Fr.: globule   

Generally, a small spherical mass, especially a small drop of liquid.
A dense spherical cloud of dust that absorbs radiation; → Bok globule.

From → globe + → -ule.

Guycé, fro guy, → globe, + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak.

šokuh (#)

Fr.: gloire   

A colored aureole that is visible around the shadow of an observer's head, appearing on top of a cloud situated below the observer. A glory is caused by the same optics as a rainbow plus diffraction. → heiligenschein.

From O.Fr. glorie, from L. gloria "great praise or honor," of uncertain origin.

Šokuh, from Mid.Pers. škôh "magnificience, majesty, dignity; fear."

câknây (#)

Fr.: glotte   

The opening at the upper part of the → larynx, between the → vocal cords.

From Gk. glottis "mouth of the windpipe," from glotta, Attic dialect variant of glossa "tongue."

Câknây, literally "trachea's slit," from câk "slit, fissure," → rift, + nây, → trachea.

dastkeš (#)

Fr.: gant   

A covering for the hand made with a separate sheath for each finger and for the thumb ( → mitten, → mitt.

M.E.; O.E. glof; cognate with O.Norse glofi.

Dastkeš, from dast, → hand, + keš, from kešidan / kašidan "to draw, protract, to support," → galaxy.

  ۱) فروز، فروغ، فروزش؛ ۲) فروزیدن   
1) foruz, foruq, foruzeš; 2) foruzidan

Fr.: 1) rougoiement, incandescence, éclat; 2) rougeoyer, s'embraser, être incandescent, luire rouge   

1a) A light emitted by or as if by a substance heated to luminosity; incandescence. 1b) Brightness of color.
2a) To emit bright light and heat without flame; become incandescent.
2b) To shine like something intensely heated.
2c) To exhibit a strong, bright color; be lustrously red or brilliant (
afterglow, → airglow, → counterglow, → nightglow, → skyglow.

M.E. glowen, from O.E. glowan "to shine as if red-hot," ultimately from PIE *ghlo-.

Foruz-, foruzidan, afruxtan "to light, kindle;" related to foruq "light, brightness" (Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness"); rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day;" Mid.Pers. rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light," also lumen "light, window," luna "Moon;" E. light; Ger. Licht; Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."

gluon (#)

Fr.: gluon   

The hypothetical particle, in the → quantum chromodynamics theory, that carries the force between → quarks. There are eight independent types of gluon.

From glue (O.Fr. glu, from L.L. glus "glue," from L. gluten "glue") + → -on.


Fr.: glycolaldéhyde   

The organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO. It is the simplest → sugar and the first intermediate product in the formose reaction that begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and leads to the (catalyzed) formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA, under early Earth conditions. The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that the processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. However, the mechanism responsible for its formation in space is still unclear. Glycolaldehyde has been detected toward the → Galactic Center cloud Sgr B2, in the high-mass → hot molecular core G31.41+0.31, and more recently in the gas surrounding a young binary star with similar mass to the Sun (IRAS 16293-2422). See Jorgensen et al. 2012, astro-ph/1208.5498, and references therein.

From glycol, from glyc(erin) + (alcoh)ol + → aldehyde.


Fr.: gnomon   

1) A rod oriented in such a way that its shadow, cast by the Sun's rays, shows the hours on a → sundial; a style.
2) A device used in ancient times consisting of a vertical shaft used to measure the altitude of the Sun and hence to determine the time of day.

From L. gnomon, from Gk. gnomon "carpenter's square, rule; indicator," literally "one who discerns," from gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" Mod.Pers. šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know," dânestan "to know;" Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

Bâhu "stick, staff; arm (from the elbow to the shoulder)," related to bâzu "arm," Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm," also "the shadow of the gnomon on a sundial; the bar of a chariot pole;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm."

gnomonic projection
  فراشانش ِ باهویی   
farâšâneš-e bâhu-yi

Fr.: projection gnomonique   

The projection of a spherical surface onto a plane through a point. A gnomonic → map projection displays all great circles as straight lines, and therefore indicates the shortest path between two points. Small circles are projected as conic sections.

gnomon; → -ic; → projection.

boz (#)

Fr.: chèvre   

A domesticated ruminant mammal (Capra hircus) having backward curving horns and a beard especially in the male, raised for its wool, milk, and meat (

M.E. got, O.E. gat "she-goat;" cf. O.Saxon get, O.Norse geit, Dan. gjed, Du. geit, Ger. Geiss, Goth. gaits "goat," from PIE *ghaid-o- "young goat."

Boz "goat;" Mid.Pers. buz; Av. buza-; cf. Skt. bukka-; O.Ir. bocc; O.H.G. boc; Bret. bouc'h).

xodâ (#)

Fr.: dieu   

1) The Being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness who is worshipped as creator and ruler of the Universe.
2) (lowercase) A being or object believed to have more than natural attributes and powers and to require human worship ( See also: → fingers of God

M.E. from O.E. akin to O.H.G. got, Ger. Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ, from PIE *gheuH- "to call upon;" cf. Av. zu- "to call, invoke;" O.Pers. (upa)zu- "to proclaim;" Skt. hu-, variant hve- "to call upon, invoke," huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra, from root *gheu(e)- "to call, invoke."

Xodâ, xodây "god, lord, master;" Mid.Pers. xwadây "king, master;" Av. xvadāta- "autonomous" (darego.xvadāta- "highly autonomous"), from xva-, → self- + dā- "to give, grant, yield" (Pers. dâdan, → datum); cf. Skt. svadhā- "inherent power, habitual power, self-placed," from sva- "self," + dhā- "to place, fix, maintain"

Godunov method
  روش ِ گودونوف   
raveš-e Godunov

Fr.: méthode de Godunov   

In numerical analysis and fluid dynamics, a conservative scheme for solving → partial differential equations based on utilizing the solution of the local → Riemann problem at each time step.

Suggested by Sergei K. Godunov (1929-) in 1959, Math. Sbornik, 47, 271, translated 1969, US Joint Publ. Res. Service, JPRS 7226; → method.

  تلا، طلا، زر   
talâ (#), zarr (#)

Fr.: or   

A yellow, → ductile  → metal which occurs naturally in veins and alluvial deposits associated with → quartz or → pyrite; symbol Au (L. aurum "shining dawn"). → Atomic number 79; → atomic weight 196.9665; → melting point 1,064.43 °C; → boiling point 2,808 °C; → specific gravity 19.32 at 20 °C. Like other → chemical elements the gold found on Earth has an → interstellar origin. However, the new-born Earth was too hot and most of the molten gold, mixed with → iron, sank to its center to make the core during the first tens of millions of years. The removal of gold to the → Earth's core should have left the Earth's crust depleted of gold. Nevertheless, the precious metal is tens to thousands of times more abundant in the → Earth's mantle than predicted. One explanation for this over-abundance is the → Late Heavy Bombardment. Several hundred million years after the core formation a flux of → meteorites enriched the → Earth's crust with gold (Willbold et al., 2011, Nature 477, 195).

M.E., from O.E. gold, from P.Gmc. *gulth- (cf. O.H.G. gold, Ger. Gold, Du. goud, Dan. guld, Goth. gulþ), from PIE base *ghel-/*ghol- "yellow, green;" cf. Mod.Pers. zarr "gold," see below.

Talâ "gold," variants tala, tali.
Zarr "gold;" Mid.Pers. zarr; Av. zaranya-, zarənu- "gold;" O.Pers. daraniya- "gold;" cf. Skt. hiranya- "gold;" also Av. zaray-, zairi- "yellow, green;" Mod.Pers. zard "yellow;" Skt. hari- "yellow, green;" Gk. khloe literally "young green shoot;" L. helvus "yellowish, bay;" Rus. zeltyj "yellow;" P.Gmc. *gelwaz; Du. geel; Ger. gelb; E. yellow.

Goldbach's conjecture
  هاشن ِ گلدباخ   
hâšan-e Goldbach

Fr.: conjecture de Goldbach   

Every number greater than 2 is the sum of two → prime numbers. Goldbach's number remains one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems of today.

Named after the German mathematician Christian Goldbach (1690-1764); → conjecture.

golden number
  عدد ِ زرّین   
adad-e zarrin (#)

Fr.: nombre d'or   

1) The number giving the position of any year in the lunar or → Metonic cycle of about 19 years. Each year has a golden number between 1 and 19. It is found by adding 1 to the given year and dividing by 19; the remainder in the division is the golden number. If there is no remainder the golden number is 19 (e.g., the golden number of 2007 is 13).
2) Same as → golden ratio.

Golden, adj. of → gold; → number.

golden ratio
  وابر ِ زرین   
vâbar-e zarrin

Fr.: nombre d'or   

If a line segment is divided into a larger subsegment (a) and a smaller subsegment (b), when the larger subsegment is related to the smaller exactly as the whole segment is related to the larger segment, i.e. a/b = (a + b)/a. The golden ratio, a/b is usually represented by the Greek letter φ. It is also known as the divine ratio, the golden mean, the → golden number, and the golden section. Its numerical value, given by the positive solution of the equation φ2 - φ - 1 = 0, is approximately 1.618033989. The golden ratio is closely related to the → Fibonacci sequence.

golden; → ratio.

Goldschmidt classification
  رده‌بندی ِ گولدسمیت   
radebandi-ye Goldschmidt

Fr.: classification de Goldschmidt   

A → geochemical classification scheme in which → chemical elements on the → periodic table are divided into groups based on their → affinity to form various types of compounds: → lithophile, → chalcophile, → siderophile, and → atmophile. The classification takes into account the positions of the elements in the periodic table, the types of electronic structures of atoms and ions, the specifics of the appearance of an affinity for a particular → anion, and the position of a particular element on the → atomic volume curve.

Developed by Victor Goldschmidt (1888-1947); → classification.

gossamer ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ تنته   
halqe-ye tanté

Fr.: anneau ténu   

An extremely faint and broad ring (in fact two rings) of tiny particles around → Jupiter lying just outside the main ring.

Gossamer "a film of cobwebs floating in air in calm clear weather; an extremely delicate variety of gauze, used esp. for veils," from M.E. gossomer, from gos "goose" + somer "summer." Possibly first used as name for late, mild autumn, a time when goose was a favorite dish, then transferred to the cobwebs frequent at that time of year; → ring.

Halqé, → ring; tanté "cobweb, spider's web," from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."

  ۱) گتره؛ ۲) گتریدن   
1) gotré; 2) gotridan

Fr.: 1) commérages, ragots; 2) faire des commérages, bavarder   

1) Talk about other people's private or personal matters often including remarks that are unkind or untrue.
2) Engage in gossip.

From M.E. gossib, godsib "a close friend or relation, a confidant," from O.E. godsibb, "godfather, godmother," literally "a person related to one in God," from god "→ God" + sibb "a relative," → sibling. In M.E. the sense was "a close friend with whom one gossips," hence "a person who gossips," later "idle talk."

Gotré, from Shirâzi gotré "idle talk, nonesence," cf. (Qatrân, Damâvand) gotâré "loquacious," related to goftan "to say, tell," → promise.

Gould's Belt
  کمربند ِ گولد   
kamarband-e Gould (#)

Fr.: ceinture de Gould   

A band of hot, young stars (O and B types) and molecular clouds that stretches around the sky. It is tilted by about 20 degrees with respect to the Galactic plane, and has a diameter of about 3000 light-years.

Named after the American astronomer Benjamin A. Gould (1824-1896), who discovered it in 1879 by studying the distribution of the nearest luminous stars in space; → belt.

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