General: To rule over, to exercise authority.
From O.Fr. governer "to govern," from L. gubernare "to direct, rule, guide," originally "to steer," from Gk. kybernan "to steer or pilot a ship" (the root of cybernetics).
Faršâyidan, from Av. fraxšā(y)- "to establish authority, to deploy lordship," from fra- "forward, forth" (Av. pouruua- "first"; cf. Skt. pūrva- "first," pra- "before, formerly," Gk. pro; L. pro; O.E. fyrst "foremost," superlative of fore, from P.Gmc. *furisto; E. fore) + xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Hellenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."
The way that a city, company, etc., is controlled by the people who run it (Merriam-Webster.com).
1) The act or process of governing; specifically: authoritative direction or
A regulating device for maintaining uniform speed regardless of changes of load, as by controlling the supply of gas, steam, fuel, etc.
A block of the Earth's crust, bounded by two normal faults, that has dropped downward in relation to adjacent portions.
Graben, from Ger. Graben "ditch, trench;" O.H.G. graban "ditch," grab "grave, tomb;" Goth. graban "ditch;" P.Gmc. *graban; cf. O.E. græf "grave, ditch;" E. a grave; PIE base *ghrebh-/*ghrobh- "to dig, to scratch, to scrape."
Foruzamin, from foru- + zamin. The first component foru- "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain." The second component zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
1) padâk; 2) padâkidan
Fr.: 1) grade, échelon; 2) classer, noter, graduer
1) A degree or step in a scale, as of rank, advancement, quality, value, or intensity.
From Fr. grade "grade, degree," from L. gradus "step, pace, gait, walk;" figuratively "a step, stage, degree," related to gradi "to walk, step, go," and second element in congress, progress, etc.; from PIE *ghredh-; cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come," O.Ir. in-greinn "he pursues."
Padâk, from Baluci padâk "step, stair, ladder" (ultimately from Proto-Ir. *padaka-), older form of Pers. pâyé "step, base," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad-, cf. Skt. pat: Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes; PIE *pod-/*ped-.
1) General: Degree of slope.
From L. gradient-, gradiens, pr.p. of gradi "to walk, go," from grad- "walk" + -i- thematic vowel + -ent suffix of conjugation.
Ziné "ladder, steps, stair," may be related to ciné, from cidan "to place (something) above/upon (another similar thing);" cf. Lori râ-zina, Yazdi râ-cina "stairs," Nâyini orcen "stairs, ladder;" the phoneme change -c- into -z-, as in gozidan, gozin-/cidan, cin- both deriving from Proto-Ir. *cai- "to heap up, gather, collect."
Proceeding, taking place, changing by small degrees.
From M.L. gradualis, from L. gradus "step."
Padâkvâr, from padâk "grade," + -vâr a suffix which denotes
"suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession."
belk-e padâkvâr, ~ pâypâyé
Fr.: sursaut graduel
A burst that happens gradually, in contrast to a sudden burst.
1) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 2) padâk gereftan, padâkidé šodan; 3) padâk dâdan, padâkidan; 4) padâkmand, padâkidé
Fr.: 1) graduer; 2) obtenir son diplôme; 3) conférer un diplôme; 4) licencié, diplômé
1) To divide into or mark with degrees or other divisions, as the
scale of a thermometer.
M.E., from M.L. graduatus, p.pa. of graduari "to take a degree," from L. gradus "step, → grade."
1, 3) Padâk dâdan, compound infinitive, padâkidan simple infinitive,
both from padâk, → grade, + dâdan "to give,
grant," → datum, and -idan,
padâkeš, padâk dehi, padâk giri
1) Marking the scale of an instrument, e.g. the stem of a thermometer is graduated in
Verbal noun of → graduate.
1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.
Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."
Fr.: coagulation des grains
Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.
Fr.: évaporation des grains
Conversion of dust grains into smaller grains due to high environmental temperatures.
Fr.: formation des grains
The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced.
ruyeš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: croissance des grains
The increase of dust grains to micron sizes in the interstellar environments due to various physical processes, for example mutual collisions and accumulation of ice mantles.
rupuš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: manteau de grain
A layer of icy molecules covering interstellar dust grains.
→ grain; mantle, from O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
Rupuš "overgarment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
Fr.: érosion des grains par pulvérisation
The ejection of atoms from interstellar dust grains due to impact by gas ions, which leads to grain destruction.
→ grain; sputtering, from sputter "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren.
Osparâni, verbal noun of osparândan, from os- "out of, outside," → ex- + parândan "to eject," transitive of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").
A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.
From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."
Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.
dastur-e zabân, zabân-dastur
M.E. gramarye, from O.Fr. gramaire "grammar; learning," especially Latin and philology, an "irregular semi-popular adoption" of L. grammatica, from Gk. grammatike (tekhne) "(art) of letters" with a sense of both philology and literature, from grammatikos "pertaining to or versed in letters or learning," from gramma "letter," → -gram.
Dastur-e zabân, literally "language rule," from dastur "rule; mandate, command; religious authority (of the Zoroastrians);" Mid.Pers. dast "able, capable;" Av. danh- "to teach, instruct;" cf. Skt. dams- "to show or teach wonderful skills, perform wise;" Gk. didasko "I learn;" PIE *dens- "to become skilfull; to teach, instruct" (Cheung 2007); + zabân, → language.