teleskop bâ fotâd-e barmažandé
Fr.: télescope à incidence rasante
A telescope design used for focusing → extreme ultraviolet, → X-rays, and → gamma rays by means of → grazing incidence. Such short wavelengths do not reflect in the same manner as at the large incidence angles employed in optical and radio telescopes. Instead, they are mostly absorbed. To bring X-rays to a → focus, one has to use a different approach from → Cassegrain or other typical → reflecting telescopes. In a grazing-incidence telescope, incoming light is almost → parallel to the → mirror surface and strikes the mirror → surface at a very → shallow angle. Much like skipping a stone on the water by throwing it at a low angle to the surface, X-rays may be → deflected by mirrors arranged at low incidence angles to the incoming energy. Several designs of grazing-incidence mirrors have been used in various → X-ray telescopes, including → plane mirrors or combinations of → parabolic and → hyperbolic surfaces. To increase the collecting area a number of mirror elements are often nested inside one another. For example, the → Chandra X-ray Observatory uses two sets of four nested grazing-incidence mirrors to bring X-ray photons to focus onto two → detector instruments. → Bragg's law; → X-ray astronomy.
Unusual or considerable in degree, power, intensity, number, etc.
O.E. great "big, coarse, stout," from W.Gmc. *grautaz (cf. Du. groot, Ger. groß "great").
Bozorg "great, large, immense, grand, magnificient;" Mid.Pers. vazurg "great, big, high, lofty;" O.Pers. vazarka- "great;" Av. vazra- "club, mace" (Mod.Pers. gorz "mace"); cf. Skt. vájra- "(Indra's) thunderbolt," vaja- "strength, speed;" L. vigere "be lively, thrive," velox "fast, lively," vegere "to enliven," vigil "watchful, awake;" P.Gmc. *waken (Du. waken; O.H.G. wahhen; Ger. wachen "to be awake;" E. wake); PIE base *weg- "to be strong, be lively."
Fr.: Grand Attracteur
A hypothesized large concentration of mass (about 1016 → solar masses), some hundred million → light-years from Earth, in the direction of the → Centaurus → supercluster, that seems to be affecting the motions of many nearby galaxies by virtue of its gravity.
parhun-e bozorg, dâyere-ye ~
Fr.: grand cercle
A circle on a sphere whose plane passes through the center of the sphere.
Great Red Spot
lakke-ye sorx-e bozorg (#)
Fr.: Grande tache rouge
An anticyclonic storm on the planet Jupiter akin to a hurricane on Earth, but it is enormous (three Earths would fit within its boundaries) and it has persisted for at least the 400 years that humans have observed it through telescopes.
greatest eastern elongation
bozorgtarin derâzeš-e xâvari
Fr.: plus grande élongation est
The Greatest → elongation of an inferior planet occurring after sunset.
Fr.: la plus grande éclipse
The instant when the axis of the Moon's → shadow cone passes closest to Earth's center. For → total eclipses, the instant of greatest eclipse is virtually identical to the instants of greatest magnitude and greatest duration. However, for → annular eclipses, the instant of greatest duration may occur at either the time of greatest eclipse or near the sunrise and sunset points of the eclipse path (F. Espenak, NASA).
Fr.: plus grande élongationt
The largest → elongation of an inferior planet from the Sun. It may be → greatest eastern elongation or → greatest western elongation. The greatest elongation of Mercury is about 28°, and thus Mercury can only be observed 112 minutes after sunset or before sunrise. For Venus, it is about 47°, making it visible at most about 3 hours after sunset or before sunrise.
greatest western elongation
bozorgtarin derâzeš-e bâxtari
Fr.: plus grande élongation ouest
The Greatest → elongation of an inferior planet occurring before sunrise.
Greek numeral system
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Yunâni
Fr.: numération grecque
A → numeral system in which letters represent numbers. In an earlier system, called acrophonic, the symbols for numerals came from the first letter of the number name. Subsequently, the numerals were based on giving values to the letters of alphabet. For example α, β, γ, and δ represented 1, 2, 3, and 4; while ι, κ, λ, and μ stood for 10, 20, 30, and 40, and ρ, σ, τ, and υ for 100, 200, 300, and 400. The Greek also used the additive principle. For example 11, 12, 13, 14, and 374 were written ια, ιβ, ιγ, ιδ, and τοδ. The numbers between 1000 and 9000 were expressed by adding a subscript or superscript ι (iota) to the symbols for 1 to 9. For example ιA and ιΘ for 1000 and 9000. Numbers greater than 9999 were expressed using M, which was the myriad, 10,000. Therefore, since 123 was represented by ρκγ, 123,000 was written as Mρκγ.
A color intermediate in the spectrum between yellow and blue (wavelength between 5000 and 5700 Å). The color of most grasses and leaves while growing.
Green, from O.E. grene, related to growan "to grow," from W.Gmc. *gronja- (cf. Dan. grøn, Du. groen, Ger. grün), from PIE base *gro- "to grow."
Sabz "green," from Mid.Pers. sabz "green, fresh," related to sabzi "grass."
deraxš-e sabz (#)
Fr.: rayon vert
A brilliant green color that occasionally appears on the upper limb of the Sun as it rises or sets.
green pea galaxy
kahkešân-e noxod sabz
Fr.: galaxie petit pois
A member of a class of galaxies of relatively small size having very strong emission lines especially [O iii] 5007 Å and an unusually large → equivalent width of up to 1000 Å. They were first noted because of their peculiar bright green color and small size, unresolved in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. Most of the green pea galaxies are low-mass galaxies (M ~ 108.5 to 1010→ solar masses), with high → star formation rates (~ 10 solar masses per year), solar → metallicities, and → redshifts ranging from z = 0.112 to 0.360 (See Cardamone et al. 2009, MNRAS 399, 1191; Izotov et al. 2010, astro-ph/1012.5639).
A building with transparent walls and roof, usually of glass, for the cultivation and exhibition of plants under controlled conditions (Dictionary.com).
Fr.: effet de serre
An increase in → temperature caused when incoming → solar radiation is passed but outgoing → thermal radiation is trapped by the → atmosphere. The major factors for this effect are → carbon dioxide and → water vapor. The greenhouse effect is very important on Venus and Earth but very weak on Mars. On average, about one third of the solar radiation that hits the Earth is reflected back to space. The Earth's surface becomes warm and emits → infrared radiation. The → greenhouse gases trap the infrared radiation, thus warming the atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect the Earth's average global temperature would be -18° Celsius, rather than the present 15° Celsius. However, human activities are causing greenhouse gas levels in the atmosphere to increase.
gâzhâ-ye dârâ-ye oskar-e garmxâné
Fr.: gaz à effet de serre
Gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. These gases include: water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2); methane (CH4); nitrous oxide (N2O); chlorofluorocarbons (CFxClx); and tropospheric ozone (O3).
Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time (GAST)
zamân-e axtari-ye padidâr-e Greenwich
Fr.: temps sidéral apparent de Greenwich
Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time (GMST)
zamân-e axtari-ye miyângin-e Greenwich
Fr.: temps sidéral moyen de Greenwich
Fr.: méridien de Greenwich
A borough in southeast London, England, on the Thames River. It is the site of the original Royal Observatory, through which passes the prime meridian, or longitude 0°; → meridian.