hâlat-e zaminé (#)
Fr.: état fondamental
The lowest energy state of an atom, molecule, or ion, when all electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels, i.e. not excited.
nepâheš az zamin
Fr.: observation au sol
An astronomical observation carried out using a telescope on Earth, as opposed to that from an orbiting satellite.
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan
Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper
1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or
regarded as belonging together; e.g.
→ Local Group of galaxies.
From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."
Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."
negare-ye goruh (#)
Fr.: théorie des groupes
A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.
Fr.: vitesse de groupe
The act or process of uniting into groups.
Verbal noun of → group.
ruyidan (#), rostan (#)
To increase by natural development, as any living organism or part by assimilation of nutriment; increase in size or substance (Dictionary.com).
From M.E. growen, O.E. growan; cf. Du. groeien, O.H.G. grouwan; PIE base *ghre- "to grow, become green," from which is also derived grass.
Ruyidan, rostan "to grow," from Mid.Pers. rôditan, rustan "to grow;" Av. raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot," with fra- "to grow up, shoot forth;" cf. Skt. ruh- "to grow, develop, ascend, climb," rohati "grows," rudh- "to grow, sprout, shoot," rodhati "grows."
ruyeš (#), rist (#)
The Crane. A constellation in the Southern Hemisphere , located at 22h 30m right ascension, -45° declination. Its brightest star, of magnitude 1.7 and spectral type B7. Abbreviation: Gru; genitive: Gruis
From L. grus "crane;" akin to Gk. geranos "crane;" Welsh garan; Lith. garnys "heron, stork;" O.E. cran; E. crane. Named by Johann Bayer in 1603.
Dornâ "crane," from Turkish, a bird of the family Gruidae.
1) hads; 2) hadsidan, hads zadan
Fr.: 1) deviner; 2) conjecture
1a) An opinion that one reaches or to which one commits oneself on
the basis of probability alone or in the absence of any evidence
M.E. gessen, perhaps from Scandinavian; cf. Sw., Dan., Norw. gissa, M.L.G. gissen, M.Du. gessen, related to verb get.
Hads, from Ar. Hads "intuition, conjecture, surmise."
1) râh bordan; 2) râhbord
Fr.: 1) guider; 2) guidage
M.E. giden (v.), from O.Fr. guider "to guide, lead," from Frankish *witan "show the way" (cf. Ger. weisen "to show, point out," wissen "to know;" O.E. witan "to see"). Cognate with Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan "to see"); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."
Fr.: étoile de guidage
Fr.: lunette guide
Same as → guiding telescope.
A → technique used in astronomical → observations to keep the → telescope→ tracking in pace with the → rotational motion of the → Earth. Guiding consists of maintaining the → image of a star motionless during the observation. See also → guiding accuracy, → guiding telescope, → offset guiding, → autoguiding.
Verbal noun of → guide.
Fr.: précision du guidage
Fr.: centre de guidage
Fr.: lunette de guidage
A telescope which is attached to a second telescope being used for photographic purposes. The guiding telescope, mounted parallel to the optical axis of the main telescope, is used by the observer to keep the image of a celestial body motionless on a photographic plate.
Fr.: nébuleuse de la Guitare
A nebula resembling a guitar produced by a → neutron star, which is travelling at a speed of 1600 km per sec! The neutron star leaves behind a "wake" in the → interstellar medium, which just happens to look like a guitar (only at this time, and from our point of view in space). The Guitar Nebula is about 6.5 light years away, in the constellation → Cepheus, and occupies about an arc-minute in the sky, corresponding to about 300 years of travel for the neutron star.
M.E. go(u)lf, from O.Fr. golfe, from It. golfo, from Gk. Gk. kolpos "bay, gulf of the sea," originally "bosom."
Xalij, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *garika-, from *gar- "to soak, moisten" (+ relation suffix -ika-, → -ics; notably the variant Tabari -ij, as in Yušij); cf. Gilaki *xal-, xâlə "stream, brook" (as in the stream names Cam.xâlə, Zât.xâlə, Hašu.xâlə, etc.), Tabari câl in Câlus (name of a river in Mâzandarân); Laki cal.ow "marsh;" Tabari kela, kila "stream;" Baluci kor "river;" Iranian rivers Kor (in the Fârs Province), Kârun and Karxé (both in Xuzestân); in classical Pers. literature kul, kul.âb "pond, reservoir," (prefixed far-) far.qar "a minor stream derived from a more considerable one; the bed of a river when almost dry, the small quantity of water remaining in such a river" (Steingass); âqâridan, âqeštan, farqâridan "to moisten, wet, macerate;" Dari Yazd qeriz "saliva;" Râvar, Bardsir, Kerman geriz "saliva;" Laki xur "swamp;" Tâti xer "cloud;" Bandare Jâski gerâh "moisture;" Ossetic I. qaryn/qard "to permeate, seep through (of liquid);" Shughni (prefixed) ažär- "to soak, wet;" Roshani (prefixed) nižêr-/nižêrd "to soak, wet;" Skt. gal- "to drip;" O.H.G. quellan "to well, to gush;" Ger. Quell, Quelle "source." Note that, according to the classical Pers. dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' compiled in India (17th century), xalij is a Pers. word and not Arabic. Similarly, M.A. Emâm-Shushtari, in his "Dictionary of Persian Words in Arabic," remarks that the Arabic root XLJ is irrelevant to the "gulf" sense.
A trench or ravine worn away by running water in the earth.
Gully, a variant of M.E. golet "water channel," from O.Fr. goulet, dim. of goule "throat, neck," from L. gula; cf. Mod.Pers. galu "throat," geri, geribân "collar," gerivé "low hill," gardan "neck;" Mid.Pers. galôg, griv "throat," gartan "neck," Av. grīvā- "neck;" Skt. gala- "throat, neck," Gk. bora "food;" L. vorare "to devour;" PIE base *gwer- "to swallow, devour."
Âbkand, literally "dug by water," from âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook") + kand, contraction of kandé, p.p. of kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs").