Fr.: nébuleuse gazeuse
(n.) gaz; (v.) gaz kardan
1) (n.) A standard of measure or measurement, size, or quantity.
From Fr. jauge "gauging rod," perhaps from Frankish galga "rod, pole for measuring;" cf. O.N. gelgja "pole, perch;" O.H.G. galgo; Lith. zalga "pole, perch;" Arm. dzalk "pole;" E. gallows; see below.
Gaz "a yard for measuring cloth; a length of 24 finger-breadths, or six hands; the tamarisk-tree," from Mid.Pers. gaz "tamarisk," may be of the same origin as gauge. In verbal form with kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").
Fr.: boson de jauge
A class of elementary particles that includes the gluon, photon, W+, W-, and Z0 particles, each having an integral spin.
goruh-e gaz (#)
Fr.: groupe de jauge
The mathematical group associated with a particular set of gauge transformations.
Fr.: invariance de jauge
The invariance of any field theory under gauge transformation.
Fr.: symétrie de jauge
A principle underlying the quantum-mechanical description of the three non-gravitational forces. It allows a system to behave in the same way even though it has undergone various transformations. The earliest physical theory which had a gauge symmetry was Maxwell's electrodynamics.
negare-ye gaz (#)
Fr.: théorie de jauge
A field theory in which it is possible to perform a transformation without altering any measurable physical quantity.
tarâdis-e gaz (#)
Fr.: transformation de jauge
A change of the fields of a gauge theory that does not change the value of any measurable quantity.
A technique in which the thickness, density, or quantity of a material is determined by the amount of radiation it absorbs.
Fr.: facteur de Gaunt
In the atomic theory of spectral line formation, a quantum mechanical correction factor applied to the absorption coefficient in the transition of an electron from a bound or free state to a free state.
Gaunt, after John Arthur Gaunt (1904-1944), English physicist born in China, who significantly contributed to the calculation of continuous absorption using quantum mechanics; → factor
The c.s.g. unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction), equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter, or 10-4 tesla.
Named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855).
Gauss's law for electricity
qânun-e Gauss dar barq
Fr.: loi de Gauss en électricité
The total electric flux ψ out of an arbitrary closed surface in free space is equal to the net charge within the surface divided by the → permittivity. In differential form: ∇ . E = ρ/ε0, where ρ is the → charge density and ε0 the permittivity. The integral form of the law: ∫E . dS = Q/ε0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.
Gauss's law for magnetism
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi
Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme
The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.
Fr.: lemme de Gauss
Fr.: théorème de Gauss
The total normal induction over any closed surface drawn in an electric field is equal to 4π times the total charge of electricity inside the closed surface. Gauss's theorem applies also to other vector fields such as magnetic, gravitational, and fluid velocity fields. The theorem can more generally be stated as: the total flux of a vector field through a closed surface is equal to the volume → integral of the vector taken over the enclosed volume. Also known as → divergence theorem, Ostrogradsky's theorem, and Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem.
vâbâžeš-e Gaussi (#)
Fr.: distribution gaussienne
A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean.
Fr.: élimination de Gauss
A method of solving a matrix equation of the form A x = b, where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors. The process consists of two steps, first reducing the elements below the diagonal to 0 and second, back substituting to find the solutions.
Fr.: fonction de Gauss
Gaussian gravitational constant
pâyâ-ye gerâneši-ye Gauss
Fr.: constante gravitationnelle de Gauss
The constant, denoted k, defining the astronomical system of units of length (→ astronomical unit), mass (→ solar mass), and time (→ day), by means of → Kepler's third law. The dimensions of k2 are those of Newton's constant of gravitation: L 3M -1T -2. Its value is: k = 0.01720209895.