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general relativity bâzânigi-ye harvin Fr.: relativité générale The theory of → gravitation developed by Albert Einstein (1916) that describes the gravitation as the → space-time curvature caused by the presence of matter or energy. Mass creates a → gravitational field which distorts the space and changes the flow of time. In other words, mass causes a deviation of the → metric of space-time continuum from that of the "flat" space-time structure described by the → Euclidean geometry and treated in → special relativity. General relativity developed from the → principle of equivalence between gravitational and inertial forces. According to general relativity, photons follow a curved path in a gravitational field. This prediction was confirmed by the measurements of star positions near the solar limb during the total eclipse of 1919. The same effect is seen in the delay of radio signals coming from distant space probes when grazing the Sun's surface. Moreover, the space curvature caused by the Sun makes the → perihelion of Mercury's orbit advance by 43'' per century more than that predicted by Newton's theory of gravitation. The → perihelion advance can reach several degrees per year for → binary pulsar orbits. Another effect predicted by general relativity is the → gravitational reddening. This effect is verified in the → redshift of spectral lines in the solar spectrum and, even more obviously, in → white dwarfs. Other predictions of the theory include → gravitational lensing, → gravitational waves, and the invariance of Newton's → gravitational constant. → general; → relativity. |
general secretary harvin dabir Fr.: secrétaire général |
generalization harvinkard, harvineš Fr.: généralisation The act or process of generalizing; → generalize. Verbal noun of → generalize. |
generalize harvin kardan, harvinidan Fr.: généraliser To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form. |
generalized harvinidé Fr.: généralisé Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities. P.p. of → generalize |
generalized coordinates hamârâhâ-ye harvinidé Fr.: coordonnées généralisées In a material system, the independent parameters which completely specify the configuration of the system, i.e. the position of its particles with respect to the frame of reference. Usually each coordinate is designated by the letter q with a numerical subscript. A set of generalized coordinates would be written as q_{1}, q_{2}, ..., q_{n}. Thus a particle moving in a plane may be described by two coordinates q_{1}, q_{2}, which may in special cases be the → Cartesian coordinates x, y, or the → polar coordinates r, θ, or any other suitable pair of coordinates. A particle moving in a space is located by three coordinates, which may be Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, or → spherical coordinates r, θ, φ, or in general q_{1}, q_{2}, q_{3}. The generalized coordinates are normally a "minimal set" of coordinates. For example, in Cartesian coordinates the simple pendulum requires two coordinates (x and y), but in polar coordinates only one coordinate (θ) is required. So θ is the appropriate generalized coordinate for the pendulum problem. → generalized; → coordinate. |
generalized forces niruhâ-ye harvinidé Fr.: forces généralisées In → Lagrangian dynamics, forces related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates q_{i} (i = 1, ..., n), generalized forces are expressed by F_{i} = ∂L/∂q_{i}, where L is the → Lagrangian function. → generalized; → force. |
generalized momenta jonbâkhâ-ye harvinidé Fr.: quantité de mouvement généralisée In → Lagrangian dynamics, momenta related to → generalized coordinates. For any system with n generalized coordinates q_{i} (i = 1, ..., n), generalized momenta are expressed by p_{i} = ∂L/∂q^{.}_{i}, where L is the → Lagrangian function. → generalized; → momentum. |
generalized velocities tondâhâ-ye harvinidé Fr.: vitesses généralisées The time → derivatives of the → generalized coordinates of a system. → generalized; → velocity. |
generate âzânidan Fr.: générer To bring into existence; create; produce. Generate, from M.E., from L. generatus "produce," p.p. of generare "to bring forth," from gener-, genus "descent, birth," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to give birth," as explained below. Âzânidan, from â- nuance/strengthening prefix + zân, from Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget") + -idan infinitive suffix. |
generation âzâneš Fr.: génération 1) A coming into being. Verbal noun of → generate. |
generative âzânandé, âzâneši Fr.: génératif 1) Capable of producing or creating. |
generator âzângar Fr.: générateur 1) A machine for converting one form of energy into another. From L. generator "producer," from genera(re)→ generate + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns. Âzângar, from âzân the stem of âzânidan→ generate + -gar suffix of agent nouns, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base k^{w}er- "to do, to make"). |
genetic ženetik (#), ženetiki (#) Fr.: génétique |
genetics ženetik (#) Fr.: génétique The study of heredity and inheritance, of the transmission of traits from one individual to another, of how genes are transmitted from generation to generation. |
genitive case kâte-ye dârešti Fr.: genetif The → grammatical case that marks a noun or pronoun typically expressing "possession" or "origin." In English, the genitive case of a noun is shown in writing by adding an s together with an appropriately positioned apostrophe or creating it by using the pronoun of. For instance: "John's house," or "the house of John." A → synthetic language would express the same idea by putting the name "John" in the genitive case. Also called → possessive case. From O.Fr. genitif or directly from L. (casus) genitivus "case expressing possession, source, or origin," from genitivus "of or belonging to birth," from genitus, p.p. of gignere "to beget, produce," → generate; → case. Dârešti, → possessive; kâté, → case.. |
genius 1) farhuš; 2) farhuši Fr.: génie 1) An exceptionally intelligent person or one with exceptional skill in a particular area
of activity. From L. genius "tutelary deity or genius of a person;" originally "generative power," from gignere "beget, produce," → generate. Farhuš, from far- intensive prefix "much, abundant; elegantly," → perfect, + huš, → intelligence. Farhuši, from farhuš + -i. |
genocide nežâdkoši (#) Fr.: génocide The deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group (Dictionary.com). |
genus sardé (#) Fr.: genre 1) Biology: The usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the
classification of organisms, usually consisting of more than one
species. From L. genus "race, stock, kind, gender;" cognate with Gk. genos "race, kind," and gonos "birth, offspring, stock," → generate. Sardé, from Mid.Pers. sardag "sort, kind;" Av. sarrəδa- "kind, type." |
geo- zamin- (#) Fr.: géo- A combining form meaning "the earth," used in the formation of compound words. Geo-, form Gk. ge "earth, land, ground, soil." Zamin, zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth." |
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