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inertial mass jerm-e laxtinâk, ~ laxtimand Fr.: masse inertielle The mass of a body as determined from the acceleration of the body when it is subjected to a force that is not due to gravity. |
inertial motion jonbeš-e laxtinâk, ~ laxtimand Fr.: mouvement inertiel Motion free of any force, with constant velocity. |
inertial oscillation naveš-e laxtinâk, ~ laxtimand Fr.: oscillation inertielle 1) A periodic motion of a particle that moves, free from external forces, over
the surface of a rotating sphere, such the Earth.
Inertial oscillations result from the → Coriolis force.
For example, a hockey puck launched on a big enough lake in the northern hemisphere
would turn to the right (east) and eventually loop back to nearly the initial
point (actually west of that point). The time it takes for the huckey puck
to return can be computed with the → Coriolis frequency. → inertial; → oscillation. |
inertial reference frame cârcub-e bâzbord-e laxtinâk, ~ ~ laxtimand Fr.: référentiel galiléen A → reference frame or coordinate system in which there are no accelerations, only zero or uniform motion in a straight line. According to the special theory of relativity, it is impossible to distinguish between such frames by means of any internal measurement. |
infall darun-oft Fr.: chute vers le centre The fall of matter toward the center of a region of gravitational influence. Darun-oft, from darun- "in, into; within" (Mid.Pers. andarôn "inside," from andar, → inter-, + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + oft, → fall. |
inference darbord Fr.: inférence 1) The act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed
to be true. From M.L. inferentia, from inferre, from → in- "in" + ferre "to carry, bear," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," as below. Darbord (on the models of daryâft "perception" and peybord "understanding, finding;" see also bâzbord, → reference), from dar-, → in-, + bord past stem of bordan "to carry, bear;" (Mid.Pers. burdan; O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," Av. barəθre "to bear (infinitive);" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry"). |
inferior zirin (#) Fr.: inférieure Lower in place or position; closer to the bottom or base. From L. inferior "lower," comp. form of inferus (adj.) "that is below or beneath," from infra "below" (→ infrared), cognate with Pers. zir, as below. Zirin, adj. from zir "below, down," Mid.Pers. azêr "below, under," êr "below, down; low, under," adar "low;" Av. aδara- (adj.), aδairi- (prep.) "below;" cf. Skt. ádhara- "lower;" L. infra (adv., prep.) "below, underneath, beneath," inferus "lower;" O.E. under "under, among"); PIE base *ndher. |
inferior conjunction hamistân-e zirin Fr.: conjonction inférieure The conjunction of an inferior planet with the Sun when the planet is between the Sun and the Earth. → superior conjunction. → inferior; → conjunction. |
inferior culmination bâlest-e zirin Fr.: culmination inférieure The meridian transit of a star between the celestial pole and the north point of the horizon. Same as → lower culmination. → superior culmination. → inferior; → culmination. |
inferior planet sayyâre-ye zirin (#) Fr.: planète inférieure A planet that orbits between the Earth and the Sun. Mercury and Venus are the only two inferior planets in the Solar System. |
infinite bikarân (#) Fr.: infini Unlimited or unmeasurable in extent of space, duration of time, etc. |
infinite population porineš-e bikarân Fr.: population infinie A → statistical population consisting of individuals or items which either possesses the infinite property through some limiting process or is non-enumerable. For example, the population of all → real numbers between 0 and 1 and the population of all → integers are examples of infinite population. In case of random sampling with replacement, any population is always infinite. → infinite; → population. |
infinite series seri-ye bikarân (#) Fr.: série infinie A series with infinitely many terms, in other words a series that has no last term, such as 1 + 1/4 + 1/9 + 1/16 + · · · + 1/n^{2} + ... . The idea of infinite series is familiar from decimal expansions, for instance the expansion π = 3.14159265358979... can be written as π = 3 + 1/10 + 4/10^{2} + 1/10^{3} + 5/10^{4} + 9/10^{5} + 2/10^{6} + 6/10^{7} + 5/10^{8} + 3/10^{9} + 5/10^{10} + 8/10^{11} + ... , so π is an "infinite sum" of fractions. See also → finite series. |
infinite set hangard-e bikarân Fr.: ensemble infini A set which can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with part of itself. |
infinitesimal bikarânxord Fr.: infinitésimal General: Indefinitely or exceedingly small. Infinitesimal, coined by Ger. philosopher and mathematician Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) from N.L. infinitesim(us) "infinite in rank," from infinit(us), → infinite, + -esimus suffix of ordinal numerals + → -al. Bikarânxord, from bikarân "unbounded, unlimited, infinite," from bi- "without" + karân "boundary, side, end" (variants karâné, kenâr, from Mid.Pers. karân, karânak, kenâr "edge, limit, boundary," Av. karana- "side, boundary, end") + xord "minute, little, small" (from Mid.Pers. xvart, xôrt "small, insignificant;" Av. ādra- "weak, dependent;" Skt. ādhrá- "small, weak, poor," nādh "to be oppressed;" Gk. nothros "sluggish;" PIE base *nhdhro-). |
infinitesimal calculus afmârik-e bikarânxord Fr.: calcul infinitésimal The body of rules and processes by means of which continuously varying magnitudes are dealt with in → calculus. The combined methods of mathematical analysis of → differential calculus and → integral calculus. → infinitesimal, → calculus. |
infinitive karpâyé Fr.: infinitif The nominal form of the verb which expresses the idea of action or state without indicating person, number, or tense. Contraction of L. infinitivus modus "unlimited, indefinite mood," from L. infinitus, → infinite. Karpâyé, literally "action base," from kar-, → verb, + pâyé, → base. |
infinity bipâyân (#), bipâyâni (#) Fr.: infini, infinité That quantity which is greater than any assignable quantity. Noun form of → infinite. |
infix darvand Fr.: infixe An → affix that is inserted within a root or stem. From L. infixus p.p. of infigere "to fasten in," from in- + figere "fasten." Darvand, from dar- "in" + vand, → affix. |
inflate pandâmidan Fr.: s'enfler To become inflated; to increase, especially suddenly and substantially. → inflation, → inflatory model. Inflate, from L. inflatus p.p. of inflare "to blow into, puff up," from → in- "into" + flare "to blow." Pandâmidan "to swell," from pandâm [Mo'in] "swelling;" Borujerdi panâm, panam "swellig;" Malâyeri panomidan "to swell;" Laki penamiyen "to swell;" Hamadâni pandumidan "swelling of the eye or other parts of the body;" Kermâni padum kerdan "to swell," padum "swelled; fat, corpulent;" Tâleši pandâm, pandom "swelling;" Gilaki pandâm kudan "rising of river water caused by flood;" cf. Gk. pneuma "wind; breath," from pnein "to blow; to breathe;" PIE base *pneu- "to breathe." Related terms in other Indo-European languages: O.E. fnaeran "to breathe heavily," fneosan "to snort, sneeze;" M.H.G. pfnusen, pfnehen "to breathe, pant, sniff, snort, sneeze;" Norw. fnysa "to breeze;" M.Du. fniesen, Du. fniezen "to sneeze;" O.H.G. niosan, Ger. niesen "to sneeze." |
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