An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -ic ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso > >>

Number of Results: 637
inflate
  پندامیدن   
pandâmidan

Fr.: s'enfler   

To become inflated; to increase, especially suddenly and substantially. → inflation, → inflatory model.

Inflate, from L. inflatus p.p. of inflare "to blow into, puff up," from → in- "into" + flare "to blow."

Pandâmidan "to swell," from pandâm [Mo'in] "swelling;" Borujerdi panâm, panam "swellig;" Malâyeri panomidan "to swell;" Laki penamiyen "to swell;" Hamadâni pandumidan "swelling of the eye or other parts of the body;" Kermâni padum kerdan "to swell," padum "swelled; fat, corpulent;" Tâleši pandâm, pandom "swelling;" Gilaki pandâm kudan "rising of river water caused by flood;" cf. Gk. pneuma "wind; breath," from pnein "to blow; to breathe;" PIE base *pneu- "to breathe." Related terms in other Indo-European languages: O.E. fnaeran "to breathe heavily," fneosan "to snort, sneeze;" M.H.G. pfnusen, pfnehen "to breathe, pant, sniff, snort, sneeze;" Norw. fnysa "to breeze;" M.Du. fniesen, Du. fniezen "to sneeze;" O.H.G. niosan, Ger. niesen "to sneeze."

inflation
  پندام   
pandâm

Fr.: inflation   

1) General: The act of inflating; the state of being inflated.
2) Cosmology: A brief exponential expansion of the Universe postulated to have occurred 10-35 seconds after the → Big Bang, in response to the separation of the → strong interaction from the → electroweak interaction. This idea aims at explaining the → flatness problem, the → horizon problem, and the → magnetic monopole problem. See also → inflaton field.

Verbal noun of → inflate.

inflationary model
  مدل ِ پندامی   
model-e pandâmi

Fr.: modèle d'inflation   

A class of → Big Bang models of the Universe that include a finite period of accelerated expansion in their early histories. Such an event would have released enormous energy, stored until then in the vacuum of space-time. The horizon of the Universe expanded, temporarily, much faster than the speed of light. → inflaton field.

Inflationary, adj. of → inflation; → model.

inflaton
  اینفلاتون   
inflaton

Fr.: inflaton   

The hypothetical → particle that mediates the hypothetical → inflaton field.

From inflat-, from → inflaton field, + particle suffix → -on.

inflaton field
  میدان ِ اینفلاتون   
meydân-e inflaton

Fr.: champ inflaton   

A hypothetical → scalar field that provides a theoretical basis for → inflation in the early → Big Bang history of the → Universe. The inflaton field would fill space with the same energy at every point. In general, the scalar field can vary with time and space, though to a first approximation everywhere in the Universe will have the same value at any time. The field has a particle associated with it, called → inflaton, just as the → electromagnetic field is associated with the → photon. The inflaton field is characterized also by a → negative pressure that would yield a tremendous → repulsive gravity during a brief lapse of time. In the earliest moments of the Universe, space is uniformly filled with an inflaton field, whose value places it higher up on its → potential energy curve. The inflaton's → potential energy would drop in a tiny fraction of a second, on the order of 10-35 seconds. And yet, during that brief instant, space would expand by a colossal factor, of at least 1030.

inflaton; → field.

inflect
  درچفتیدن   
darcaftidan

Fr.: mettre une désinence à, fléchir   

1) General: To bend in, to turn from a direct line or course.
2) Grammar: To change the ending or form of a word in accordance with other words in a sentence. To apply → inflection to.

From M.E. inflecten, from L. inflectere "to bend in, bow, curve," figuratively, "to change," from → in- + flectere "to bend, to curve," of uncertain origin.

Darcaftidan, from dar-, → in-, + caftidan, → flex.

inflection
  درچفتش   
darcafteš

Fr.: inflexion   

A change in the form of a word to indicate a change in such grammatical features as tense, person, gender, case, number, voice, or mood. A general term for → declension and → conjugation.

Verbal noun of → inflect.

inflection point
  نقطه‌ی ِ درچفتش   
noqte-ye darcafteš

Fr.: point d'inflexion   

A point on a → curve at which the → tangent changes direction, from rotating in one sense to rotating in the opposite sense.

inflection; → point.

inflectional
  درچفتشی   
darcafteši

Fr.: désinentiel, flexionnel   

Of, relating to, or characterized by the use of → inflection, e.g. → inflectional affix.

inflection + → -al.

inflectional affix
  وند ِ درچفتشی   
vand-e darcafteši

Fr.: affixe inflexionnelle   

An → inflection that is added at the end of a root word. In English there are eight inflectional affixes, which are all suffixes. They always follow derivational suffixes and do not change the category of a word.

inflectional + → affix.

inflow
  درتچان   
dartacân

Fr.: afflux, débit entrant   

1) The act or process of flowing in or into. Something that flows in or into. Opposite of → outflow.
2) Meteo: Flow of water into a stream, lake, reservoir, container, basin, aquifer system, etc.

Inflow, from → in- + → flow.

influence
  ۱) هنایش؛ ۲) هناییدن   
1) hanâyeš (#) ; 2) hanâyidan (#)

Fr.: 1) influence; 2) influencer, influer   

1) The act or power of producing an → effect, especially inconspicuously; the effect of power exerted.
2) To have or exert influence on; affect.

M.E., from O.Fr. influence, from L. influentia "stellar emanation" (it was thought an ethereal liquid flowed from the stars and affected the destiny of humans), also "a flow of water, a flowing in," from L. influentem (nominative influens), pr.p. of influere "to flow into," from → in- "into, in, on, upon" + fluere "to flow;" PIE base *bhleu- "to swell, overflow;" cf. Gk. phluein "to boil over, bubble up," phlein "to abound."

Hanâyeš "influence" (Borhân-e Qâte'; Kasravi). We suggest the following origin for this word: ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ha-nai "to conduct, direct, guide, lead," from *ham-naiH-, from prefix *ham- "together," also an intensive prefix, → com-, + *naiH- "to lead, conduct, guide;" cf. Av. naii- (naŷ-) "to lead, guide," naiieiti "leads;" O.Pers. nay- "to lead, bring" anaya "leads;" Mid.Pers. nidan, ônidan, nay- "to lead, bring;" Sogd. n'y- "to lead;" Choresmian (prefixed, + *apa-) bny- "to remove;" Skt. nī- "to lead," náyati "leads." In dialects: Anâraki niye "to bring, lead;" Kurd. (prefixed) ânin, inân, (with prefix ham-) hânin, hênân "to bring, lead to," Tâleši ânân, ânoe "to bring together two edges;" Zazaki ân- "to bring;" Qohrudi hunda, hun- "to bring, lead;" Târi niya-, neg- "to lead;" Lasgardi (prefixed) bin- "to bring, carry;" Qomi niyé, Tafreši neyé "a jab or poke used for leading the cattle;" see also → relate.

inform
  ازداییدن   
azdâyidan (#)

Fr.: informer   

1) To impart → knowledge of a fact or circumstance.
2) To supply (oneself) with knowledge of a matter or subject (dictionary.com).
3) To convey → information.
See also: → informatics, → information theory.

Inform, from M.E. informen, from O.Fr. enformer, from L. informare "to shape, form; to form an idea of," from → in- "into" + → forma "form."

Azdâyidan, from Mid.Pers. azdênidan "to inform," from azd "information, proclamation; known" (loaned into Arm. azd), from O.Pers. azdā "known," azdā kar "to become known;" Av. azdā "known;" Sogdian 'zd' "informed, known;" cf. Skt. addhā' "manifestly; certainly, truly," addhāti "sage."

informant
  ازداینده   
azdâyandé

Fr.: informateur   

A person who gives → information.

From → inform + -ant a suffix forming adjectives and nouns from verbs.

informatics
  ازداییک   
azdâyik (#)

Fr.: informatique   

The science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded → information. Also called → information science, computer science.

Informatics, from informat(ion), → information + → ics.

information
  ازدایش   
azdâyeš (#)

Fr.: information   

1) Knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.
2) Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news.
3) The act or fact of informing.
4) A sequence of signals that conveys a message to a receiver. Information does not exist on its own. It is contained within something and is coded. The notion of information involves → uncertainty and → randomness; hence the necessity for calling on → probability theory and → statistics.
See also: → information content, → information entropy, → information flow, → information paradox, → information science, → information technology, → information theory, → infosphere, → quantum information, → entropy.

Verbal noun of → inform.

information content
  پربنه‌ی ِ ازدایش   
parbane-ye azdâyeš

Fr.: contenu d'information   

The → negative of the → logarithm of the → probability that a particular → message or → symbol will be emitted by a → source.

information; → content.

information entropy
  درگاشت ِ ازدایش   
dargâšt-e azdâyeš

Fr.: entropie de l'information   

The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy.

information; → entropy.

information flow
  تچان ِ ازدایش   
tacân-e azdâyeš

Fr.: flot d'information   

The flow of data into a system or to the end users.

information; → flow.

information paradox
  پارادخش ِ ازدایش   
pârâdaxš-e azdâyeš

Fr.: paradoxe de l'information   

A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-2018) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for → quantum mechanics, which maintains that information can never be lost. This topic is a matter of intense debate. Many solutions have been proposed, but all of them have serious drawbacks. In order to analyze better these solutions one needs a quantum gravity theory, which does not exist at the moment. In brief, either the idea of → quantum unitarity must be given up, or a mechanism should be found by which information is not lost after it falls into a black hole.

information; → paradox.

<< < -ic ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf Inf inj InS ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso > >>