Fr.: pic du fer
A maximum on the element-abundance curve in the vicinity of the iron → atomic number 26. The relative higher abundance of the → iron peak elements results from their being the end products of → nucleosynthesis in the interiors of → massive stars.
iron peak element
bonpâr-e setiq-e âhan
Fr.: élémént du pic du fer
A member of a group of elements with → atomic masses A about 40 to 60 that are synthesized by the → silicon burning process and appear in the → iron peak. They are mainly: → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → manganese (Mn), → iron (Fe), → cobalt (Co), and → nickel (Ni).
1) Using words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its
literal meaning; containing or exemplifying irony: an ironic novel; an
Fr.: 1) ironie; 2) ironiser
1) The humorous or mildly sarcastic use of words to imply the opposite
of what they normally mean. → ironic.
From L. ironia, from Gk. eironeia "dissimulation, assumed ignorance," from eiron "dissembler," perhaps related to eirein "to speak."
Govâžé, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-vac-, from *ui- prefix denoting "apart, away, out," cf. Av. vi-, O.Pers. viy-, Skt. vi- (Mod.Pers., e.g., gozidan, → select, gozaštan "to cross," → passage) + *uac- "to say, speak," → word; also govâžidan "to make irony of, to say ironically."
Irr I galaxy
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I
Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type I
Irr II galaxy
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I
Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type II
Fr.: éclairement énergétique
To expose something to → radiation.
1) tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri; 2) nurgostard
1) Exposure to any kind of radiation or atomic particles.
1) Tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri;, from tâbeš→ radiation + giri verbal noun of gereftan
"to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf.
Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha
"seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab,"
from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;"
PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize"); dahi verbal noun of dâdan
"to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield,"
dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;"
Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;"
L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;"
Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun,
O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").
Fr.: nombre irrationnel
A → real number which cannot be exactly expressed as a ratio a/b of two integers. Irrational numbers have decimal expansions that neither terminate nor become periodic. Every → transcendental number is irrational. The most famous irrational number is √ 2.
1) bisâmân (#); 2) nârazan-mand
From O.Fr. irregulier, from M.L. irregularis, from → in- "not" + L. regularis from regula "rule," from PIE *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule" (cf. Pers. râst "right, straight;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right).
Bisâmân, from bi- "not, without" + sâmân "order, arrangement, disposition; boundary, limit," Lârestâni sâmon "sign or mark separating one field from another," Gilaki, Tabari šalmân "a straight peace of wood or beam, post;" Mid.Pers. sâmânak, sahmân "limit;" loaned into Arm. sahmân; cf. Skt. sīmān-, sīmā- "boundary, border, limit."
Fr.: galaxie irrégulière
A galaxy with no spiral structure and no symmetric shape. Irregular galaxies are usually filamentary or very clumpy in shape and tend to smaller than others. Two types of irregular galaxies are defined, → Irr I galaxy and → Irr II galaxy.
bandevâr-e bisâmân, mâh-e ~
Fr.: satellite irrégulier
A satellite whose orbit around its planet is eccentric, inclined with respect to the equatorial plane, and relatively far from the planet. Strong solar perturbations cause the orbit to precess. → regular satellite.
Fr.: variable irrégulière
A type of variable star in which variations in brightness show no regular periodicity. There are two main types, irregular eruptive variables and irregular pulsating variables.
Not capable of returning to an original condition. → irreversible process.
farâravand-e vâgaštnâpazir (#)
Fr.: processus irréversible
A physical process in which the combined → entropy of the → system and the → environment increases. During an irreversible process the system is not in equilibrium at all instances of time. Most of the processes in nature are irreversible. → reversible process.
Having a constant entropy.
Fr.: écoulement isentrope
Fr.: process isentrope
axtaršenâsi-e eslâmi (#)
Fr.: astronomie islamique
The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.
From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.