An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 637
iron peak
  ستیغ ِ آهن   
setiq-e âhan

Fr.: pic du fer   

A maximum on the element-abundance curve in the vicinity of the iron → atomic number 26. The relative higher abundance of the → iron peak elements results from their being the end products of → nucleosynthesis in the interiors of → massive stars.

iron; → peak.

iron peak element
  بن‌پار ِ ستیغ ِ آهن   
bonpâr-e setiq-e âhan

Fr.: élémént du pic du fer   

A member of a group of elements with → atomic masses A about 40 to 60 that are synthesized by the → silicon burning process and appear in the → iron peak. They are mainly: → titanium (Ti), → chromium (Cr), → manganese (Mn), → iron (Fe), → cobalt (Co), and → nickel (Ni).

iron; → peak; → element.

ironic
  گواژیک   
govâžik

Fr.: ironique   

1) Using words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning; containing or exemplifying irony: an ironic novel; an ironic remark.
2) Of, pertaining to, or tending to use irony or mockery; ironical (Dictionary.com).

irony; → -ic.

irony
  گواژه   
govâžé (#)

Fr.: 1) ironie; 2) ironiser   

1) The humorous or mildly sarcastic use of words to imply the opposite of what they normally mean. → ironic.
2) An instance of this, used to draw attention to some incongruity or irrationality (Dictionary.com).

From L. ironia, from Gk. eironeia "dissimulation, assumed ignorance," from eiron "dissembler," perhaps related to eirein "to speak."

Govâžé, ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-vac-, from *ui- prefix denoting "apart, away, out," cf. Av. vi-, O.Pers. viy-, Skt. vi- (Mod.Pers., e.g., gozidan, → select, gozaštan "to cross," → passage) + *uac- "to say, speak," → word; also govâžidan "to make irony of, to say ironically."

Irr I galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ I   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type I   

An → irregular galaxy that shows a hint of a spiral arm or bar, and can be placed at the far end of spirals in the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

Irr II galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان ِ گونه‌ی ِ II   
kahkašân-e bisâmân-e gune-ye I

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière de type II   

An amorphous, → irregular galaxy that does not appear to show any structure that can place it into the → Hubble sequence.

irregular; → galaxy.

irradiance
  تابشداری   
tâbešdâri

Fr.: éclairement énergétique   

The → energy at all → wavelengths that is incident on unit area of surface in unit time. It is measured in Watts per square meter.

Irradiance, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + radi(ant), → radiation, + -ance a suffix used to form nouns either from adjectives in -ant or from verbs.

Tâbešdâri, from tâbeš, → radiation, + dâri, verbal noun from dâštan "to have, hold," → property.

irradiate
  تابش دادن   
tâbeš dâdan

Fr.: irradier   

To expose something to → radiation.

irradiance.

Tâbeš, → radiation, dâdan "to give," → irradiation.

irradiation
  ۱) تابش‌دهی، تابش‌گیری؛ ۲) نورگسترد   
1) tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri; 2) nurgostard

Fr.: irradiation   

1) Exposure to any kind of radiation or atomic particles.
2) An optical effect that makes a bright object appear larger than it really is when viewed against a darker background.

Irradiation, from ir- variant of → in- (by assimilation) before r + → radiation.

1) Tâbešdehi, tâbešgiri;, from tâbešradiation + giri verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize"); dahi verbal noun of dâdan "to give," Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do").
2) Nurgostard, from nur, → light, + gostard past stem of gostardan "to expand; to spread; to diffuse" (Mid.Pers. wistardan "to extend; to spread;" Proto-Iranian *ui.star-; Av. vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + Av. star- "to spread," starati "spreads;" cf. Skt. star- "to spread out, extend, strew," strnati "spreads;" Gk. stornumi "I spread out," strotos "spread, laid out;" L. sternere "to spread;" Ger. Strahlung "radiation," from strahlen "to radiate," from Strahl "ray;" from M.H.G. strāle; from O.H.G. strāla "arrow," stripe; PIE base *ster- "to spread").

irrational number
  عدد ِ ناوابری   
adad-e nâvâbari

Fr.: nombre irrationnel   

A → real number which cannot be exactly expressed as a ratio a/b of two integers. Irrational numbers have decimal expansions that neither terminate nor become periodic. Every → transcendental number is irrational. The most famous irrational number is √ 2.

From ir- a prefix meaning "not," a variant of → in-, + → rational; → number.

irregular
  ۱) بی‌سامان؛ ۲) نارزن‌مند   
1) bisâmân (#); 2) nârazan-mand

Fr.: irrégulier   

1) Lacking symmetry, even shape, formal arrangement, etc. → irregular galaxy; → irregular variable.
2) Not according to rule, or to the accepted principle, method, course, order, etc.

From O.Fr. irregulier, from M.L. irregularis, from → in- "not" + L. regularis from regula "rule," from PIE *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "to direct, rule" (cf. Pers. râst "right, straight;" O.Pers. rāsta- "straight, true," rās- "to be right, straight, true;" Av. rāz- "to direct, put in line, set," razan- "order;" Skt. raj- "to direct, stretch," rjuyant- "walking straight;" Gk. orektos "stretched out;" L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight;" Ger. recht; E. right).

Bisâmân, from bi- "not, without" + sâmân "order, arrangement, disposition; boundary, limit," Lârestâni sâmon "sign or mark separating one field from another," Gilaki, Tabari šalmân "a straight peace of wood or beam, post;" Mid.Pers. sâmânak, sahmân "limit;" loaned into Arm. sahmân; cf. Skt. sīmān-, sīmā- "boundary, border, limit."

irregular galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بی‌سامان   
kahkašân-e bisâmân

Fr.: galaxie irrégulière   

A galaxy with no spiral structure and no symmetric shape. Irregular galaxies are usually filamentary or very clumpy in shape and tend to smaller than others. Two types of irregular galaxies are defined, → Irr I galaxy and → Irr II galaxy.

irregular; → galaxy.

irregular satellite
  بنده‌وار ِ بی‌سامان، ماه ِ ~   
bandevâr-e bisâmân, mâh-e ~

Fr.: satellite irrégulier   

A satellite whose orbit around its planet is eccentric, inclined with respect to the equatorial plane, and relatively far from the planet. Strong solar perturbations cause the orbit to precess. → regular satellite.

irregular; → satellite.

irregular variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ بی‌سامان   
vartande-ye bisâmân

Fr.: variable irrégulière   

A type of variable star in which variations in brightness show no regular periodicity. There are two main types, irregular eruptive variables and irregular pulsating variables.

irregular; → variable.

irreversible
  واگشت‌ناپذیر   
vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: irréversible   

Not capable of returning to an original condition. → irreversible process.

Irreversible, from ir- "not," variant of → in- + → reversible.

irreversible process
  فراروند ِ واگشت‌ناپذیر   
farâravand-e vâgaštnâpazir (#)

Fr.: processus irréversible   

A physical process in which the combined → entropy of the → system and the → environment increases. During an irreversible process the system is not in equilibrium at all instances of time. Most of the processes in nature are irreversible. → reversible process.

irreversible; → process.

isentropic
  ایزودرگاشت   
izodargâšt

Fr.: isentrope   

Having a constant entropy.

iso- + → entropy + → -ic.

isentropic flow
  تچان ِ ایزودرگاشت   
tacân-e izodargâšt

Fr.: écoulement isentrope   

A → reversible flow in which the value of → entropy remains → constant; i.e. no energy is added to the flow, and no energy losses occur due to friction or dissipative effects.

isentropic; → flow.

isentropic process
  فراروند ِ ایزودرگاشت   
farâravand-e izodargâšt

Fr.: process isentrope   

A → thermodynamic process for which there is no → heat transfer with the surroundings, and no change in → entropy.

isentropic; → process.

Islamic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ اسلامی   
axtaršenâsi-e eslâmi (#)

Fr.: astronomie islamique   

The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. The term Islamic should refer to a civilization rather than a religion, because much of the astronomy was secular. In fact more than 90% of "Islamic" astronomy deals with the Greek astronomy → Ptolemaic system, which has obviously nothing to do with religion. Moreover, many non-Muslims within that civilization contributed to this science and must be acknowledged. Apart from these considerations, the term "Islamic astronomy" creates a conceptual disparity. In comparison, the works of European astronomers, such as Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and others are not placed under "Christian astronomy," and they are indeed not called "Christian scientists." See also → Arabic astronomy, → Islamic calendar.

From Islam, literally "submission" (to God); → astronomy.

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