An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 644

Fr.: isoler   

To set or place apart; detach or separate so as to be alone.
Chemistry: To obtain a substance in an uncombined or pure state.
Physics: → isolated system.

Isolate, back-formation from isolated, from Fr. isolé "isolated," from It. isolato, from L. insulatus "made into an island," from insula "island;" maybe from *en-salos "in the sea," from salum "sea."

Vâyutidan, from vâ- denoting "separation" (also "reversal, opposition; repetition; back, backward," variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + Mid.Pers. yut "separate, different," Mod.Pers. jodâ "separate, apart;" Av. yuta- "separate, apart" + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: isolé   

Set apart or separated from others or other things.

Past participle of → isolate.

isolated galaxy
  کهکشان ِ وایوتیده   
kahkešân-e vâyutidé

Fr.: galaxie isolée   

A galaxy that is not a member of a dense aggregate. In other words, a galaxy that is formed in a low galactic density environment and has evolved without major interactions with other galaxies of similar mass.

isolated; → galaxy.

isolated massive star formation
  دیسش ِ وایوتیده‌ی ِ ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم   
diseš-e vâyutide-ye setâre-ye porjerm

Fr.: formation isolée d'étoile massive   

Massive star formation outside → OB associations. Recent observational findings suggest that → massive star formation is a collective process. In other words, massive stars form in → cluster environments and the mass of the most massive star in a cluster is correlated with the mass of the cluster itself. Nevertheless, other observational results give grounds for supposing that massive stars do not necessarily form in clusters but that they can be formed as isolated stars or in very small groups. According to statistical studies nearly 95% of Galactic → O star population is located in clusters or OB associations. This means that a small percentage, about 5%, of high mass stars may form in isolation. Isolation is meant not traceable to an origin in an OB association. This definition therefore excludes → runaway massive stars, which are thought to result from either dynamical interaction in massive dense clusters, or via a kick from a → supernova explosion in a → binary system. Alternatively, isolated massive star has been defined as follows: An O-type star belonging to a cluster whose total mass is < 100 Msun and moreover is devoid of → B stars (Selier et al. 2011, A&A 529, A40 and references therein).

isolated; → massive star; → formation.

isolated neutron star (INS)
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی ِ وایوتیده   
setâre-ye notroni-ye vâyutidé

Fr.: étoile à neutron isolée   

A → neutron star which does not belong to a → binary system, does not have radio emission, and is not surrounded by a progenitor → supernova remnant. INSs appear to be thermally cooling with no emission outside the → soft X-ray band, except for faint optical/UV counterparts. Although these properties are similar to those of → compact central object (CCO)s, they are a distinct class because they lack any observable associated supernova remnant or nebula. There are presently seven confirmed INSs (sometimes referred to as The Magnificent Seven), six of which have measured weakly modulated X-ray pulsations with periods between 3 s and 11 s, much longer than those of CCOs (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).

isolated; → neutron; → star.

isolated system
  راژمان ِ وایوتیده   
râžmân-e vâyutidé

Fr.: système isolé   

Thermodynamics: A system which has no exchange of energy or matter with surroundings. The internal energy of such a system remains constant. → closed system; → open system.

isolated; → system.


Fr.: isolation   

An act or instance of isolating; the state of being isolated.

Verbal noun of → isolate.

izomer (#)

Fr.: isomère   

Physics: Any of two or more nuclei having the same atomic number A and mass number Z but different half-lives.
Chemistry: One of two or more substances that have the same chemical composition but differ in structural form.

Back formation from isomeric, from → iso- + mer a combining form meaning "part," from Gk. meros "part, portion, share."

Izomer, loan from Fr. isomère.


Fr.: isomorphisme   

A one-to-one → mapping between two → sets, which preserves the relations existing between elements in its → domain. An isomorphism is a → bijective morphism.

iso-; → morphism.


Fr.: isonèphe   

A line drawn through all points on a weather map having the same amount of → cloud cover.

From Gk. → iso- + nephos "cloud," cognate with Pers. nam "humidity, moisture;" Av. napta- "moist," nabās-câ- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" from PIE *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky."

Izoabr, from izo-, → iso-, + abr → cloud.


Fr.: isophotal   

Of or relating to → isophotes.

isophote; → -al.

isophotal radius
  شعاع ِ ایزوشیدی   
šo'â'-e izošidi

Fr.: rayon isophotal   

The size attributed to a galaxy corresponding to a particular level of → surface brightness. The reason is that galaxies do not have sharp edges.

isophotal; → radius.


Fr.: isophote   

A line joining points with the same surface brightness on a plot or in image of a celestial object such as a nebula or galaxy.

Isophote, from → iso- + a combining form of Gk. phos (gen. photos) "light."

Izošid, from izo-, → iso-, + šid "light, sunlight," from Mid.Pers. šêt "shining, radiant, bright;" Av. xšaēta- "shining, brilliant, splendid, excellent."


Fr.: isoplanatique   

The quality of an imaging system which is characterized by → isoplanatism.

From → iso- "equal, uniform" + Gk. plane "wandering," from planasthai "to wander" + -tic adjective-forming suffix, → -ic.

Izobirâh, from izo-, → iso-, + birâh "a devious path; a wanderer, who deviates, errs."

isoplanatic angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ ایزوبیراه   
zâviye-ye izobirâh

Fr.: angle isoplanatique   

The angle in which the → point spread function of the atmosphere/telescope system is space invariant. Because of the presence of → turbulence in high layers of the atmosphere, this angle is extremely small, often only a few seconds of arc at visible wavelengths. See also → aplanatism.

isoplanatic; → angle.

isoplanatic patch
  پچ ِ ایزوبیراه، تکه‌ی ِ ~   
pac-e izobirâh, teke-ye ~

Fr.: tache isoplanatique   

The spatial region where the variation of the → point spread function of an imaging system is considered negligible.

isoplanatic; → patch.

  ایزوبیراهی، ایزوبیراهمندی   
izobirâhi, izobirâhmandi

Fr.: isoplanatisme   

In an imaging system, the unvarying of the → point spread function over an extended field of view.

From isoplanat(ic), → isoplanatic, + → -ism.


Fr.: isoplanicité   

The condition in which the wavefronts arriving from different parts of a region of sky undergo almost identical phase perturbations. See also → isoplanatic patch.

isoplanatic; → patch.

  ایزوچند، هم‌چند   
izocand, hamcand

Fr.: isoplèthe   

A line on a map connecting points of equal value. For example the contour lines joining points of equal altitude on a topographic map. Some other examples of isopleths are: → isobar, → isoneph, and → isohel.

From Gk. isoplethes, from → iso- + pleth(os) "great number, multitude;" cognate with Pers. por, → full, + -es adj. suffix.

Izocand, from izo-, → iso-, + cand replacing candi (after prefix) "quantity," from Mid.Pers. candih "amount, quantity," from cand "how many, how much; so many, much;" O.Pers. yāvā "as long as;" Av. yauuant- [adj.] "how great?, how much?, how many?," yauuat [adv.] "as much as, as far as;" cf. Skt. yāvant- "how big, how much;" Gk. heos "as long as, until."

isosceles triangle
  سه‌بر ِ دو-پهلو-برابر   
sebar-e do-pahlu-barâbar (#)

Fr.: triangle équilatéral   

A triangle having two sides equal.

From L.L. isosceles, from Gk. isoskeles "with equal legs; that can be divided into two equal parts," from isos "equal, identical," → iso-, + skelos "leg."

Sebar, → triangle, do-pahlu-baraabar, from do, → two, pahlu, → side, barâbar, → equal.

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