An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 645

Fr.: inclinaison   

1) The angle between two lines or two planes.
2) An orbital element that defines the angle between the orbital plane of a solar system body (planet, comet, asteroid) and the plane of the ecliptic.
3) The angle between the equatorial and orbital planes of a planet.

Inclination, from M.E. inclinacioun, from L. inclination-, from inclinat(us) p.p. of inclinare, from → in- + clinare "to bend;" cf. Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline;" Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-; Av. sray- "to lean;" Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined, slant;" PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline" from which is also derived P.Gmc. *khlinen (Ger. lehnen, E. lean).

Darkil, from prefix dar- "in" + kil "bent, crooked, inclined" [Dehxodâ], Mid.Pers. xwahl "bent, crooked" (Mod.Pers. dialectal/colloquial variants kowleh, cowleh, cowl, caval, xohl, xohal, hol), cf. Skt. kûla- "slope, declivity;" PIE base *klei-, as above.

inclination of axis
  درکیل ِ آسه   
darkil-e âse

Fr.: inclinaison de l'axe   

The angle between the rotation axis of a planet and the normal to the ecliptic.

inclination; → axis.

inclination of Earth's equator
  درکیل ِ هموگار ِ زمین   
darkil-e hamugâr-e zamin

Fr.: inclinaison de l'équateur terrestre   

obliquity of the ecliptic.

inclination; → Earth; → equator.


Fr.: s'incliner; incliner   

To deviate from the vertical or horizontal; slant.

Verbal form of → inclination.


Fr.: inclure   

To comprise as a part. See also → conclude, → exclude.

From L. includere "to shut in, enclose, imprison, insert," from → in- "in" + claudere "to shut, close; to block up, make inaccessible," ultimately from PIE root *klau- "hook, hooked branch or piece of wood; bolt, bar;" cf. L. clavis "key," clavus "nail," claustrum "bar, bolt, barrier;" Gk. kleidos "bar, bolt, key;" O.Ir. clo "nail;" M.Ir. clithar "hedge, fence;" O.C.S. kljuci "hook, key," kljuciti "shut;" Lith. kliuti "to catch, be caught on;" O.H.G. sliozan "shut," Ger. schließen "to shut," Schlüssel "key."

Darkolândan, from dar-, → in-, + kolândan "to shut," from kolân "wooden bolt, latch;" variants kelân, kolun, kolum, koland, kolandân, kelid, kelidân "wooden bolt, latch;" kalâk "a crook stick for gathering fruit;" (Tabari) kali, (Lori) kelil, (Laki) kalil "key; lock;" (Kurd.) kilil, kilij "key;" (prefixed) biškal(a) "a crooked stick for opening a lock, a sort of key;" (Kurd. Kurmanji) kelemce "handcuff;" (štiyâni) keleku "a large wooden mallet used by bleachers;" (prefixed) eškelak "a piece of wood used between a thief's fingers to force him confess;" kor-mix, gol-mix "a large-headed peg or stake;" Mid.Pers. kilêl "key." This family of Pers. words is probably related to PIE root *klau- "hook, hooked branch or piece of wood; bolt, bar," as above.


Fr.: inclusion   

1) The act of including; the state of being included; that which is included.
2) Fragment of foreign material enclosed within the mass of a → mineral or → meteorite. See also → CAI meteorite.

Verbal noun of → include.

incoherent waves
  موج‌های ِ ناهمدوس   
mowjhâ-ye nâhamdus (#)

Fr.: ondes incohérentes   

The lack of a fixed phase relationship between two or more waves. → coherent.

Incoherent, from negation prefix → in- + → coherent; → wave.

nâsâzgâri (#)

Fr.: incompatibilité   

1) The condition of two things being so different in nature as to be unable to exist together.
2) Logic: (Of two or more propositions) unable to be true simultaneously.

incompatible; → -ity.

nâsâzgâr (#)

Fr.: incompatible   

Of two or more propositions, unable to be true simultaneously. → compatible.

From M.L. incompatibilis, from → in- "not" + compatibilis (→ compatible).

Nâsâzgâr, from nâ- "not," → in-, + sâzgâr, → compatible.


Fr.: incomplétude   

The state of being incomplete, for example in photometric studies of a population of stars when the faintest members of the population are lacking. → completeness

Negative of → completeness.

incompressible flow
  تچان ِ ناتنجیدنی، ~ ِ تنجش‌ناپذیر   
tacân-e nâtanjidani, ~ tanješnâpazir

Fr.: écoulement incompressible   

A flow whose volume or density does not change under pressure, and therefore its density is a constant. In other words, an ideal flow in which the → divergence of velocity is zero. → compressible flow.

incompressible, from → in "not" + → compressible; → flow.


Fr.: incohérence, inconsistance   

1) Lack of consistency or agreement; incompatibility; an inconsistent feature or quality.
2) Logic: The property of being inconsistent; a self-contradictory proposition (

in-; → consistency.


Fr.: incohérent, inconsistant   

1) Lacking in consistency, agreement, or compatibility; at variance.
2) Containing contradictory elements.
4) Maths: (of two or more equations) not having one common set of values of the variables: x + 2y = 5 and x + 2y = 6 are inconsistent
5) Logic: (of a set of propositions) Enabling an explicit contradiction to be validly derived (

in-; → consistent.

  ۱) افزودن؛ ۲) افزایش   
1) afzudan; 2) afzâyeš

Fr.: 1) accroître, augmenter; croître, s'accroître, augmenter; 2) accroissement   

1) To make or become greater, in number, size, degree, etc..
2) The act of increasing. The amount by which something increases.

M.E., from O.Fr. encreiss-, pr.p. stem of encreistre, from L. increscere "to increase, to grow upon," from → in- "in" + crescere "to grow," → crescent.

Afzudan, from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow," O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward," Av. gav- "to hasten, drive," Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."


Fr.: incrément   

The amount by which a varying quantity increases between two of its stages. In → calculus, the Greek letter Δ (delta) is used to denote an increment; e.g. Δx is an increment of x, contrasted to → decrement.

Increment, from L. incrementum "growth, increase," from stem of increscere "to grow in or upon" from → in- "in" + crescere "to grow."

Fazâyé, from fazâ shortened present stem of afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Skt. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens") + -y- euphonic infix + noun/nuance suffix.

  ناهدارمند، ناهدار   
nâhedârmand, nâhedâr

Fr.: indéfini   

Not → definite; without fixed or specified limit.

From → in- "not, without" + → definite.

indefinite integral
  دُرُستال ِ ناهدارمند   
dorostâl-e nâhedârmand

Fr.: intégrale indéfinie   

Math.: An integral without upper and lower limits. The general antiderivative of a function. → definite integral.

definite; → integral.

nâvâbasté (#)

Fr.: indépendant   

Not dependent.

From negation prefix → in- + → dependent.

independent events
  رویدادهای ِ ناوابسته   
ruydâdhâ-ye nâvâbasté (#)

Fr.: événements indépendants   

Statistics: Two events if the occurrence of one of them gives no → information about whether or not the other event will occur; these events have no influence on each other.

independent; → event.

independent random variables
  ورتنده‌های ِ کاتوره‌ی ِ ناوابسته   
vatandehâ-ye kâture-ye nâvâbasté

Fr.: variables aléatoires indépendantes   

Statistics: Two random variables X and Y if and only if the value of X has no influence on the value of Y and vice versa.

dependent; → random; → variable.

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