# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 712
 multiplier   بستاگر   bastâgarFr.: multiplicateur   Arithmetic: A number by which another is multiplied. Physics: A device for intensifying some effect.Agent noun of → multiply. multiply   بستاییدن   bastâyidanFr.: multiplier   To make many or manifold; increase the number, quantity, etc., of. Arithmetic: To find the product of by multiplication.O.Fr. multiplier, from L. multiplicare "to increase," from multiplex (gen. multiplicis) "having many folds, many times as great in number," from multi- "many" + base of plicare "to lay, fold, twist."Bastâyidan, from bastâ, → multiple, + -idan infinitive suffix. multipole   بس‌قطبه   basqotbéFr.: multipôle   An entity consisting of several poles.→ multi-; → pole. multipole index   دیشن ِ بس‌قطبه   dišan-e basqotbéFr.: indice multipolaire   A variable used in → spherical harmonic expansions. Each spherical harmonic is characterized by its multipole index l: l = 0 for a → monopole, l = 1 for a → dipole, and so on. It is used in particular to describe the → cosmic microwave background anisotropy: ΔT/T0 (θ,φ) = Σ almYlm(θ,φ), where θ and φ are the → spherical polar coordinates, Ylm is the → spherical harmonic functions, and the sum runs over l = 1, 2, ..., ∞ and m = -l, ..., l, where the multipole index l corresponds to angular scales ≅ 180°/l.→ multipole; → index. multipole moment   گشتاور ِ بس‌قطبه   gaštâvar-e basqotbéFr.: moment multipolaire   The quantity that gives the electric potential field due to a distribution of charges, such as a → dipole, → quadrupole, → octupole, etc. A multipole moment usually involves powers of the distance to the origin, as well as some angular dependence.→ multi-; → pole; → moment. multitude   بسینه   basinéFr.: multitude   1) A great number. 2) A great number of people gathered together; crowd; throng. 3) The state or character of being many; numerousness.M.E., from O.Fr. multitude and directly from L. multitudo "a great number, a crowd; the common people," from multus "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -tudo "-tude."Basiné, from basin + superlative of bas "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -in + -é noun/nuance suffix (as bišiné, kaminé, etc.). multivariate   بسورتا   basvartâFr.: multivarié   Statistics: Having more than one → variable.→ multi-; → variate. multivariate time series   سری ِ زمانی ِ بسورتا   seri-ye zamâni-ye basvartâFr.: série temporelle multivariée   A → time series consisting of two or more → univariate time series which share the same time period. As an example, if we record wind velocity and wind direction at the same instant of time, we have a multi-variate time series, specifically a bivariate one.→ multivariate; → time; → series. multiverse   گیتی‌گان   gitigânFr.: multivers   A → hypothetical set of → multiple universes, including our → Universe, that together comprise all of physical reality.Initially coined by William James (1895) "an alternative to universe meant to convey absence of order and unity." In modern cosmology coined from -verse in → universe, by replacing uni- with multi- to denote "multiple universes."Gitigân, from giti, → universe, + -gân multiplicity suffix. multiwire proportional chamber   اتاقک ِ بسیار-سیم ِ برپارشی   otâqak-e besyâr-sim-e barpârešiFr.: chambre proportionnelle multifils   Same as → Charpak's detector.→ multi-; → wire; → proportional; → chamber. muon   موءون   muon (#)Fr.: muon   A short-lived → elementary particle with negative → electric charge, represented by the symbol μ-. The muon was discovered in 1936 by Carl Anderson (1905-1991) in → cosmic rays. It shares several properties with the electron: it is a → lepton with the same charge and → spin as the electron. But it is heavier than the electron (105 MeV/c2), about 200 times more massive. The muon is instable and decays after 2.197 × 10-6 s into → electron, → neutrino, and → antineutrino (μ-→ e- + νμ + anti νe) .A shortening of mu meson, from mu the 12th letter of the Gk. alphabet, + → meson. muon telescope   تلسکوپ ِ موءونی   teleskop-e muoniFr.: télescope muonique   An → instrument used in → geophysics to determine the average → density of geological bodies by measuring the → attenuation produced by → rocks on the flux of → atmospheric muons. This density muon → radiography is or example used to study the physical conditions inside → volcanoes.→ muon; → telescope. mural   دیواری   divâri (#)Fr.: mural   Of, relating to, or resembling a wall.From M.Fr. muraille, from L. muralia, neut. pl. o f muralis "of a wall," from murus "wall."Divâri "of a wall," from divâr "wall," from Mid.Pers. dîvâr "wall;" related to Mid.Pers. bâr, var "enclosure, defences, fortress;" Mod.Pers. bâru "wall, rampart, fortification; fort; tower;" O.Pers. didā- "wall, stronghold, fortress;" Av. var- "castle," from var- "to cover, conceil;" Proto-Iranian *dida-vāra-; cf. Skt. dehī- "wall;" Gk. teikhos "wall;" E. dike, ditch. mural instrument   سازال ِ دیواری   sâzâl-e divâriFr.: instrument mural   An angle measuring device mounted on or built into a wall. For astronomical purposes, these walls were oriented so they lie precisely on a meridian.→ mural; → instrument. mural quadrant   چارَکان ِ دیواری   cârakân-e divâri (#)Fr.: quadrant mural   A → mural instrument used to determine stellar positions. The quadrant consisted of a wall supporting a 90° graduated arc carefully oriented to the meridian. By means of a movable arm equipped with a sight, the altitude of a star could be determined at meridian passage.→ mural; → quadrant. murder   ۱) غنه؛ غنه کردن، آغندن   1) qané; 2) qané kardan, âqandanFr.: 1) meurtre; 2) assassiner   1) The crime of unlawfully killing a person especially with malice aforethought. 2) To kill (a human being) unlawfully and with premeditated malice (Merriam-Webster).M.E., from O.E. morðor "secret killing of a person, unlawful killing;" cf. O.Sax. morth, O.Fris. morth, O.Nor. morð, M.Du. moort, Du. moord, Ger. Mord "murder;" akin to Pers. mordan, marg, → death.Qané, from Av. -γna- "slaying, strike;" Skt. ghana- "slaying;" Gk. phonos "murder;" Proto-Ir. *gan- "to strike to;" (Zazaki Kor) gin- "to strike, hit;" Ossetic (I.) qæn, (D.) ænæ "wound, fracture," also (D.) "guilt, transgression;" PIE *gwhono- "slaying." murderer   غنه‌کار   qanekârFr.: meurtrier, assassin   One who murders; especially : one who commits the crime of murder (Merriam-Webster).→ murder; → -er. murderous   غنه‌ناک   qanenâkFr.: meurtrier   Having the purpose or capability of murder. Characterized by or causing murder or bloodshed (Merriam-Webster).→ murder; → -ous. Musca   مگس   Magas (#)Fr.: Mouche   The Fly. A minor constellation in the south → circumpolar region, lying south of → Crux, at 13h right ascension, 70° south declination. Its brightest star is of magnitude 2.7. Abbreviation: Mus; genitive: Muscae.L. musca "fly" (Fr. mouche); Gk. muia "fly;" O.H.G. mucka "mosquito;" from PIE base *mu-.Magas "a fly" (dialectal Aftari maqes; Tabari maqez, mahaz, maxši; Kurd. mêš, megez); Mid.Pers. magas, maxs "fly;" Av. maxši- "fly, mosquito;" cf. Skt. maśáka-, maks- "fly, mosquito;" PIE base *mako-. muscle   ماهیچه   mâhice (#)Fr.: muscle   1) A tissue composed of bundles of elongated cells capable of contraction and relaxation to produce movement in an organ or part. 2) An organ composed of muscle tissue (TheFreeDictionary.com).From M.Fr. muscle "muscle, sinew" and directly from L. musculus "a muscle," literally "little mouse," diminutive of mus "mouse;" → -ule. So called because the shape and movement of some muscles (notably biceps) were thought to resemble mice.Mâhice, literally "small fish, fish form," because of apparent resemblance of some muscles to fish, from mâhi, → fish, + -ce diminutive/similarity suffix; variant mâyce.