An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 736
redshift space
  فضای ِ سرخ-کیب   
fazâ-ye sorx-kib

Fr.: espace de décalage vers le rouge   

The space corresponding to → redshift measurements, as contrasted with real space. See also → redshift space distortion

redshift; → space.

redshift space distortion
  چولگی ِ فضای ِ سرخ-کیب   
cowlegi-ye fazâ-ye sorx-kib

Fr.: distorsion dûe aux vitesses particulières sur la ligne de visée   

The distortion observed in → redshift space of → galaxy clusters caused by peculiar velocities of the members (→ peculiar velocity). In a perfectly homogeneous → Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe the redshifts would accurately measure radial distances from the observer, and the mapping from real space to redshift space would simply be an identity. In an inhomogeneous Universe the peculiar velocities associated with any inhomogeneous structure will introduce a distortion in this mapping (N. Kaiser, 1987, MNRAS 227, 1). See also: → fingers of God, → Kaiser effect.

redshift; → space; → distortion;.

redshift survey
  بردید ِ سرخ‌کیب   
bardid-e sorx kib

Fr.: relevé de décalages vers le rouge   

A survey of a large region of the sky to measure the redshifts of all the galaxies down to a certain limiting magnitude.

redshift; → survey.

redshift-distance relation
  بازانش ِ سرخ‌کیب-دورا   
bâzâneš-e sorxkib-durâ

Fr.: relation décalage vers le rouge-distance   

The correlation, first established by E. Hubble, between the cosmological recession velocities of galaxies and their distances.

redshift; → distance; → relation.

redshifted line
  خط ِ سرخ‌کیبیده   
xatt-e sorx kibideh

Fr.: raie décalée vers le rouge   

A spectral line whose wavelength does not coincide with its theoretical value and is shifted toward longer wavelengths.

red; → shift; → line.

  ۱) باز‌هاختن، باز‌هازیدن؛ ۲) کاستن   
1) bâzhâxtan, bâzhâzidan; 2) kâstan

Fr.: réduire   

1) To bring to a certain state, condition, arrangement, etc.
Math.: To change the denomination or form, but not the value, of (a fraction, polynomial, etc.).
Chem.: To add an electron to.
2) To bring down to a smaller extent, size, amount, number, etc.; synonymous with → decrease.

M.E. reducen "to lead back," from O.Fr. reducer, from L. reducere, from → re- "back" + ducere "to bring, to lead."

From bâz-, → re- + Mid.Pers. hâxtan, hâzidan "to lead, guide, persuade," Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join," cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai "to follow," L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw- "to follow."
Kâstan, → decrease.

reduced mass
  جرم ِ بازهازیده   
jerm-e bâhâzidé

Fr.: masse réduite   

The "effective" → inertial mass appearing in the → two-body problem of → Newtonian mechanics. The reduced mass is a quantity which allows the two-body problem to be solved as if it were a one-body problem. For the masses m1 and m2, it is given by the ratio μ = m1m2 / (m1 + m2). The value of μ is generally smaller than m1 and m2. The larger the difference between the two masses, the closer μ will be to the smaller mass. If the particles are of equal mass, μ is half the mass of either.

reduce; → mass.

reduced Planck constant
  پایای ِ پلانک ِ باز‌هازیده   
pâyâ-ye Planck-e bâzhâzidé

Fr.: constante de Planck réduite   

The → Planck constant divided by 2π and denoted ħ, pronounced h-bar. Also called the → Dirac constant.

Reduced, p.p. of → reduce; → Planck's constant.

reduced Planck's constant
  پایای ِ پلانک ِ باز‌هازیده   
pâyâ-ye Planck-e bâzhâzidé

Fr.: constante de Planck réduite   

reduced Planck constant.

reduced Planck constant.

reducing agent
  کنشگر ِ بازهازنده   
konešgar-e bâzhâzandé

Fr.: réducteur   

A substance which removes → oxygen from, or adds → hydrogen, to another substance. In the more general sense, one which loses electrons. Also called → reductant.

reduce; → -ing; → agent.

reducing atmosphere
  جوّ ِ باز‌هازنده، هواسپهر ِ ~   
javv-e bâzhâzandé, havâsepehr-e ~

Fr.: atmosphère réductrice   

1) An atmospheric condition in which oxidation is prevented by removal of oxygen and other oxidating gasses or vapours. Usually nitrogen or hydrogen gas is used in order to produce specific effects, e.g. on ceramic wares being fired.
2) An atmosphere of a planet or moon which has a high hydrogen content, either in the form of free hydrogen or hydrogen-containing compounds, such as methane or ammonia. The early atmosphere of Earth is thought to be reducing, dominated by carbon dioxide.

Reducing verbal adj. of → reduce; → atmosphere.


Fr.: réducteur   

Same as → reducing agent.

Agent noun from → reduce.

reductio ad absurdum
  باز‌هازش به یاوه   
bâzhâzeš bé yâvé

Fr.: raisonnement par l'absurde   

Logic, Math.: A method of → reasoning in which one assumes some statement to be → true and from that → assumption proceeds to deduce a logical → absurdity and hence to a conclusion that the original assumption must have been → false.

L. reductio ad absurdum "reduction to absurdity," → reduction; → absurd.


Fr.: réduction   

1) In → data processing, the transformation of data from a "raw" form to some usable form.
2) Chem.: The removal of → oxygen from a substance, or the addition of → hydrogen to it. The term is also used more generally to include any reaction in which an atom gains → electrons.

Verbal noun of → reduce.


Fr.: redondance   

The fact of repeating or duplicity.
That part of the data content that can be dropped without any significant loss of the original information.

From L. redundantia "an overflowing, excess," from redundare "to flow back, overflow, be excessive," from → re- "again" + undare "rise in waves," from unda "a wave."

Afzun-âyi "redundancy, superabounding," from afzun "more, greater; more ample," from afzudan "to add, increase" (Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens") + âyi verbal noun of ây- present stem of âmadan "to come, arrive, become" (Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go").

Rees-Sciama effect
  اسکر ِ ریز-سیاما   
oskar-e Rees-Sciama

Fr.: effet de Rees-Sciama   

The → Sachs-Wolfe effect in which the calculations are extended to nonlinear mass concentrations. In the non-linear regime of large-scale → structure formation the → gravitational potential changes with time, and photons climb out of a → potential well slightly different from the one that they fell into. Therefore, nonlinear density fluctuations produce extra evolution of the potentials against the background expansion. On large scales, the nonlinear contribution to the full ISW effect is expected to be dominated by the linear ISW effect in a Universe with → cosmological constant (Seljak, 1996, ApJ 460, 549).

Martin J. Rees (1942-) & Dennis W. Sciama (1926-1999), 1968, Nature 217, 511; → effect.

bâzbordan (#)

Fr.: référer   

1) To direct for information or anything required.
2) To hand over or submit for information, consideration, decision, etc.
3) To have relation; relate.
4) To make reference or allusion (

M.E. referren, from L. referre "to bring back," from → re- "back" + ferre "carry, bear," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," as below.

Bâzbordan, literally "to bring back," from bâz "back," → re- + bordan "to carry, bear" (Mid.Pers. burdan, O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive)," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry").

bâzbord (#)

Fr.: référence   

1) An act or instance of referring.
2) A book, article, or passage to which one is directed.

Verbal noun of → refer.

reference ellipsoid
  بیضی‌وار ِ بازبرد   
beyzivâr-e bâzbord

Fr.: ellipsoïde de référence   

A mathematically defined surface that approximates the Earth's shape, which is basically a sphere "flattened" at its poles. The length of one of the axes at the Equator is chosen so that the ellipsoid coincides at this latitude with the mean sea level. It is the first-order definition of the non-spherical shape of the Earth as an ellipsoid of revolution. To first order, it accounts for over 90% of the → geoid.

reference; → ellipsoid.

reference frame
  چارچوب ِ بازبرد   
cârcub-e bâzbord

Fr.: système de référence   

A set of axes to which positions and motions in a system can be referred. Same as → frame of reference.

reference; → frame.

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