An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 736
refracting prism
  منشور ِ شکست‌گر   
manšur-e šekastgar (#)

Fr.: prisme réfractant   

A prism that is used as a dispersing element in a spectrograph.

refracting; → prism.

refracting telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ شکستی، دوربین ِ ~   
teleskop-e šekasti (#), durbin-e ~ (#)

Fr.: lunette astronomique   

A telescope in which an image is formed by the refraction of light through a lens or lens system.

refracting; → telescope.

refraction
  شکست   
šekast (#)

Fr.: réfraction   

1) Optics: The change of direction which a beam of light undergoes as it enters a medium of different → refractive index.
2) Acoustics: The change in direction in sound waves on reaching the boundary between two media.
3) Seismology: The bending of a seismic wave as it enters a material of different density.

From L.L. refractionem (nominative refractio) "a breaking up," from L. refractus, p.p. of refringere "to break up," from re- "back" + combining form of frangere "to break," from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (cf. Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack").

Šekast, past stem of šekastan "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to beak, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off."

refractive index
  دیشن ِ شکست   
dišan-e šekast

Fr.: indice de réfraction   

Of any optical medium, the ratio of the → speed of light in vacuum (c) to that in the medium (v): n = c/v. The refractive index for vacuum, by definition, is 1. The refractive index of air is 1.00029 at standard temperature (25 °C) and pressure (1 atm). The refractive index of a medium depends on the wavelength of refracted wave. With light waves, n increases as the wavelength decreases. → Snell's law can be used to derive n. Same as → index of refraction.

Refractive, pertaining to → refraction; → index.

refractor
  شکست‌گر   
šekastgar (#)

Fr.: réfracteur   

Same as → refracting telescope.

Agent noun of refract, → refraction.

refractory
  سرکش، دیرگداز   
sarkeš, dirgodâz

Fr.: réfractaire   

A substance that has a high → melting point. It is therefore resistant to treatment and not easily melted or worked. The opposite of → volatile.

From refract, → refraction + adj. suffix -ory.

Sarkeš "refractory, disobedient, rebellious, stubborn," literally "withdrw, remove head," from sar "head" (variants soru, sorun "horn," karnâ "a trumpet-like wind instrument," variant sornâ "a wind instrument;" Mid.Pers. sar "head," sru "horn;" Av. sarah- "head," srū- "horn, nail;" cf. Skt. śiras- "head, chief;" Gk. kara "head," karena "head, top," keras "horn;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" P.Gmc. *khurnaz (Ger. Horn, Du. horen; cognate with E. horn, as above, from PIE *ker- "head, horn;" O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument;" E. horn); PIE base *ker- "head, horn, top, summit") + keš present stem of kešidan, kašidan "to draw; withdraw, remove" (dialectal Yaqnavi xaš "to draw," Qomi xaš "streak, stria, mark," Lori kerr "line;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša- "furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow").
Dirgodâz, literally "melting slowly, with delay," from dir "slowly, tardily; late" (Mid.Pers. dêr, variants dagr, drâz "long;" (Mod.Pers. derâz "long," variant Laki, Kurdi derež); O.Pers. darga- "long;" Av. darəga-, darəγa- "long," drājištəm "longest;" cf. Skt. dirghá- "long (in space and time);" L. longus "long;" Gk. dolikhos "elongated;" O.H.G., Ger. lang; Goth. laggs "long;" PIE base *dlonghos- "long") + godâz-, godâxtan "to melt" (Mid.Pers. vitâxtan, vitâcitan "to melt," from Av. vi-taxti- "flowing away, melting," from vi- "apart, away from, out" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + tak- "to run, to flow," taciāp- "flowing water," tacinti (3pl.pers.act.) "to flow," tacar- "course," tacan "current, streaming;" Mod.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to run; to hasten; to assault," tâzi "swift (greyhound)," tak "running, rush;" Mid.Pers. tâz-, tâxtan "to flow, to cause to walk," tc- "to flow, to walk," tag "running, attack," tâzig "swift, fast;" Khotanese ttajs- "to flow, to walk;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow").

refusal
  نژن   
nežan

Fr.: refus   

An act or instance of refusing.

refuse; → -al.

Nežan, from ne- "down, below," → ni-, + žan variant of zan present stem of zadan "to hit, strike," variants Zazaki jinen-, Gazi žen-/žent "to beat, hit," Baluchi jat/jan- "to strike, hit," Awromani žanây/-žan- "to shut (the door)," Pashto -žan "to chop, mince," → beat.

refuse
  نژندن   
nežandan

Fr.: refuser   

1) To decline to accept (something offered).
2) To decline to give (Dictionary.com).
See also: → refute, → reject, → repulse, → recoil.

M.E. refusen, from M.Fr. refuser, from L. refusus, p.pa. of refundere "to give back," from → re- "back" + fundere "to pour."

Verb from → refusal.

refutability
  واکوتیدنیگی، واکوتش‌پذیری   
vâkutidanigi, vâkutešpaziri

Fr.: réfutabilité   

The quality of being → refutable.

refutable; → -ity.

refutable
  واکوتیدنی   
vâkutidani

Fr.: réfutable   

Capable or being refuted.

refute; → -able.

refutation
  واکوتش   
vâkuteš

Fr.: réfutation   

The act or process of refuting.

refute; → -tion.

refute
  واکوتیدن   
vâkutidan

Fr.: réfuter   

To prove to be false or erroneous, as an opinion or charge. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), a theory that cannot be refuted is not scientific. Related words: → falsify, → reject, → repulse, → recoil; → refuse.

From L. refutare "drive back, repress, repel," from → re- "back" + futare "to beat," probably from PIE base *bhau- "to strike down"

Vâkutidan, from vâ- "back," → re-, + kutidan (Kurd., Semnani, Sorxeyi, etc.) "to beat, strike," variant of kubidan, kuftan "to pound, strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. kôftan, kôstan "to beat, strike."

regenerate
  باز-آزانیدن   
bâz-âzânidan

Fr.: regénérer   

1) To produce anew; bring into existence again; to bring new and more vigorous.
2) Biology: To renew or restore (a lost, removed, or injured part).
3) Physics: To restore (a substance) to a favorable state or physical condition.
4) Electronics: To magnify the amplification of, by relaying part of the output circuit power into the input circuit (Dictionary.com).

re-; → generate.

regeneration
  باز-آزانش   
bâz-âzâneš

Fr.: regénération   

1) Act of regenerating; state of being regenerated.
2) Electronics: A feedback process in which energy from the output of an amplifier is fed back to the grid circuit to reinforce the input.
3) Biology: The restoration or new growth by an organism of organs, tissues, etc., that have been lost, removed, or injured (Dictionary.com).

re-; → generation.

regenerative
  باز-آزاننده، باز-آزانشی   
bâz-âzânandé, bâz-âzâneši

Fr.: régénératif   

1) Of, relating to, or characterized by regeneration.
2) Tending to regenerate.

re-; → generative.

regenerative medicine
  پزشکی ِ باز-آزاننده، ~ باز-آزانشی   
pezeški-ye bâz-âzânandé, ~ bâz-âzâneši

Fr.: médecine régénérative   

A branch of medicine that replaces or regenerates injured or diseased human cells, tissue, or organs, to restore or establish normal function.

regenerative; → medicine.

region
  ناحیه   
nâhiyé (#)

Fr.: région   

A large, usually continuous segment of a surface or space; area. → H II region.

M.E., from Anglo-Fr. regioun; O.Fr. region, from L. regionem (nominative regio) "district, country, direction, boundary," from regere "to direct," cognate with Pers. râst, → right.

Nâhiyé, loan from Ar. nâHiyat.

register
  ۱) برنوس؛ ۲) برنوسیدن   
1) barnus; 2) barnusidan

Fr.: 1) registre; 2) enregistrer   

1a) A book in which records of acts, events, names, etc., are kept; a list or → record of such acts, events, etc.
1b) An entry in such a book, record, or list.
1c) → Registration or → registry (Dictionary.com).
1d) In computer science, → registry.
2a) To enter or cause to be entered formally in a register.
2b) To enroll (a student, voter, etc.) in a school or course of study, on the voting rolls, etc. (Dictionary.com).

M.E. registre, from M.Fr., from O.Fr. registre and directly from M.L. registrum, alteration of L.L. regesta "list, matters recorded," noun use of L. regesta, from regestus, p.p. of regerere "to record; retort," literally "to carry back, bring back" from → re- "back" + gerere "carry, bear."

Barnus, from bar- "on, upon, up," → on-, + nus "to write;" cf. Kurd. (Sor.) nus, nusen "to write;" Lori nisane "to write;" variants of nevis-, neveštan, → write.

registration
  برنوسش   
barnuseš

Fr.: enregistrement   

1) The act or instance of registering.
2) An entry in a register (Dictionary.com).

register; → -tion.

registry
  برنوسه   
barnusé

Fr.: registre   

1) The act of registering; registration.
2) A place where a register is kept; an office of registration.
3) The state of being registered (Dictionary.com).
4) In → computers, a part of the → central processing unit used to store configuration information about the → software installed on a computer.

register + -y.

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