A philosophical doctrine that holds that → reason alone, unaided by experience, can arrive at basic truth regarding the world.
From → rational + -ism a Gk. suffix used in the formation of nouns denoting action or practice, state or condition, principles, doctrines, and so forth.
Râyan, → reason; xerad, → rational; bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing").
Any of several large, corvine birds having lustrous, black plumage and a loud, harsh call, especially Corvus corax, of the New and Old Worlds (Dictionary.com).
O.E. hræfn, hrefn; hræfn, cognate with O.Norse hrafn, Dan. ravn, Du. raaf, Ger. Rabe "raven," ultimately from PIE root *ker- imitative of harsh sounds (source also of L. crepare "to creak, clatter," cornix "crow," corvus "raven;" Gk. korax "raven," korone "crow;" O.C.S. kruku "raven;" Lith. krauklys "crow," related to Pers. kalâq, as below.
Kalâq, ultimately from Proto-Iranian*karak-, from *kar- "raven's harsh sound;" cf. Pers. qâr, qârqâr "croak," cognate with L. corvus, Gk. korax "a raven," Skt. kâkah, E. raven, as above and → crow.
Fr.: données brutes
Data that are unprocessed or not yet subjected to analysis.
Raw, from M.E., from O.E. hreaw "uncooked, raw;" cf. M.Du. rau, O.H.G. hrawer, Ger. roh; PIE base *krowos "congealed, bloody" cf. Skt. kravis- "raw flesh," krura- "bloody, raw, hard;" Gk. kreas "flesh;" L. crudus "not cooked," cruor "thick blood;" Lith. kraujas, O.C.S. kruvi "blood;" → data.
Dâdehâ→ data; xâm "crude, uncooked;" Mid.Pers. xâm "crude, raw" (Khotanese hāma- "raw;" Ossetic xom "raw;" Pash. ôm "raw"); cf. Skt āmá- "raw, uncooked;" Gk. omos "raw, uncooked."
1) Any of the lines or streams in which light appears to radiate from a
luminous body. → light ray.
M.E. raie, raye, from O.Fr. rai "ray, spoke," from L. → radius "ray, spoke, staff, rod."
Partow, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *pari-tap- "to shine around, radiate away." The first component *pari- "around, about;" cf. Mod.Pers. par-, pirâ- "around, about," from Mid.Pers. pêrâ; O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," per- "to pass over, beyond;" Skt. pari; Gk. peri "around, about, beyond;" L. per "through;" PIE base *per- "through, across, beyond." The second component *tap- "to shine, radiate;" cf. Mod.Pers. tâbidan, variants tâftan "to shine," tafsidan "to become hot;" Mid.Pers. tâftan "to heat, burn, shine;" taftan "to become hot;" Parthian t'b "to shine;" Av. tāp-, taf- "to warm up, heat," tafsat "became hot," tāpaiieiti "to create warmth;" cf. Skt. tap- "; to heat, be/become hot; to spoil, injure, damage; to suffer," tapati "burns;" L. tepere "to be warm," tepidus "warm;" PIE base *tep- "to be warm."
ray of class 1
partw-e rade-ye 1
Fr.: rayon de classe 1
ray of class 2
partw-e rade-ye 2
Fr.: rayon de classe 2
ray of class 3
partw-e rade-ye 3
Fr.: rayon de classe 3
ray of class 4
partw-e rade-ye 4
Fr.: rayon de classe 4
A c.g.s. unit of light intensity used in astronomy and physics to measure the brightness of the night sky, auroras, etc. One rayleigh (R) represents the light intensity of one million photons of light emitted in all directions per square centimeter of receiver per second; or, in SI units, 795.775 x 106 photons per square meter per steradian (m-2·sr-1). A dark night sky has a light intensity of roughly 250 R.
In honor of the English mathematician and physicist Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919), surname of John William Strutt, Third Baron Rayleigh, whose research ranged over several fields of physics.
Fr.: 1) droite de Rayleigh; 2) raie de Rayleigh
1) A straight line that connects the points corresponding to the initial and final states
on a graph of pressure versus specific volume for a substance subjected to a
→ shock wave. The slope of the Rayleigh line is proportional
to the square of shock speed. Steeper Rayleigh lines correspond to higher
shock speeds. See also → Hugoniot curve.
Rayleigh number (Ra)
Fr.: nombre de Rayleigh
The ratio of the buoyancy force to the viscous force in a medium. This dimensionless number is used to estimate when convection commences in a fluid. It depends on the density and depth of the fluid, the coefficient of thermal expansion, the gravitational field, the temperature gradient, the thermal diffusivity, and the kinematic viscosity. Convection usually starts when Ra is 1000 or more, while heat transfer is entirely by conduction when Ra is less than 10.
Fr.: diffusion Rayleigh
The scattering of light by → particles
of size small compared with the → wavelength of
light. The intensity of the light scattered by unit volume of the medium at an
angle θ to the direction of propagation of the incident light is:
Iθ = 8 π4α2 N I0
(1 + cos2θ)/(R2λ4),
where α is the → molecular polarizability,
N is the number of scattering molecules,
I0 is intensity of the incident light, λ is the wavelength, and
R is the distance from the scatterer.
The fourth power dependence on wavelength means that blue light is
much more strongly scattered than red light from a medium containing very fine particles.
The air molecules, mostly → nitrogen (78%) and
→ oxygen (21%) are some 1,000 times larger than
→ visible light wavelengths.
This accounts for the bluish appearance of smoke and of clear sky when the observation is not
along the direction of illumination. The setting Sun, seen through a considerable
thickness of atmosphere appears reddish because long wave radiation predominates in
the transmitted light.
Fr.: critère de Rayleigh
A criterion for the instability of a basic swirling flow with an arbitrary dependence of angular velocity Ω(r) on the distance r from the axis of rotation. This states that in → inviscid fluids: Ω(r) < 0 for instability, where Ω = (1/r3) (d/dr)(r4Ω4).
Fr.: loi de Rayleigh-Jeans
A classical law approximately describing the intensity of radiation emitted by a → blackbody. It states that this intensity is proportional to the temperature divided by the fourth power of the wavelength (8πkT/λ4). The Rayleigh-Jeans law is a good approximation to the experimentally verified Planck radiation formula only at long wavelengths. At short wavelengths it runs into a paradox named the → ultraviolet catastrophe.
Fr.: spectre Rayleigh-Jeans
Fr.: instabilité Rayleigh-Taylor
A type of hydrodynamical instability between two fluids of different densities, which occurs when the heavy fluid lies above the lighter fluid in a gravitational field. More generally a material interface is said to be Rayleigh-Taylor unstable whenever the fluid acceleration has an opposite direction to the density gradient.
Fr.: échelle Réaumur
A temperature scale in which the → freezing point and the → boiling point of → water are set to 0 and 80 degrees respectively. See also → Celsius scale, → Fahrenheit scale, → Kelvin scale, → Rankine scale.
Named after René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur (1683-1757), who first proposed it in 1730; → scale.
Fr.: catalogue RCW
A catalog of → H II regions in the → southern → Milky Way based on observations obtained at Mount Stromlo Observatory (Australia). It contains 181 → H-alpha emission objects characterized by their positions, dimensions, and estimated brightness.
Rodgers,A.W., Campbell, C.T., Whiteoak, J.B., 1960, MNRAS, 121, 103; → catalog.
vâ- (#), bâz- (#)
A prefix meaning "again, anew" to indicate repetition (as rebuild, retell), "back, backward" to indicate "withdrawal" or "backward motion" (react, recall), or sometimes merely intensive (refine, resolve).
M.E., from O.Fr., from and L. re- "again, back."
Vâ-, variant bâz-, prefix denoting "reversal, opposition; separation; repetition; open; off; away," from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind."
1) To act in response to an agent, influence, or stimulus.