An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 573

Fr.: trajectoire   

Physics: The line or curve described by an object moving through space.
Math.: A curve or surface that cuts all of a given family of curves or surfaces at the same angle.

From Mod.L. trajectoria, from feminine of trajectorius "of or pertaining to throwing across," from L. trajectus "thrown over or across," p.p. of trajicere "throw across," from L. → trans- "across" + icere, combining form of jacere "to throw," → eject.

Tarâyešâné, from tarâ- "across," → trans-, + -y- epenthetic + ešân, present stem of ešândan, → eject, + relation suffix .

tarâ- (#)

Fr.: trans-   

Prefix meaning "across, beyond, through;" variant tra-; used with both space (point to point, shape to shape) and time (time to time, past to present, present to past) concepts.
See also:
tradition, → transauroral, → transcendental, → transdisciplinary, → transduce, → transfer, → transform, → transient, → transistor, → transit, → transition, → translate, → translucent, → translunar, → transmission, → transmit, → transmutate, → trans-Neptunian, → transparent, → transponder, → transport, → transpose, → transversal, → transverse, → transuranium.

From L. trans-, from preposition trans "across, over, beyond," cognate with Pers. tarâ- as below; cf. O.E. þurh, E. through; O.S. thuru; M.Du. dore, Du. door; O.H.G. thuruh, Ger. durch; Goth. þairh "through;" O.Ir. tre, Welsh tra "through;" PIE base *ter- "to cross."

Tarâ-, from Mid.Pers. tar (preposition) "through, across, over, beyond; over time;" tarmenidan "to abuse, despise," tarmenišn "conceited, disdainful;" O.Pers. tara "over, beyond, across;" Av. tarô, tarə "over, across, beyond," from O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over," O.Pers. vi-tar- "to go across," Mid.Pers. vitartan "to pass," Mod.Pers. gozar, gozaštan "to pass, cross," Av. tara-δāta- "placed beyond," tarô-yāra- "outlasting the years" (over time), vī-tərəta- "taken away, isolated;" O.Pers. tara-draya- "overseas;" Sogdian tr- "to go;" cf. L. trans-, as above; Skt. tar- "to pass (through), overcome," tárati "crosses, passes," tirás "through, across, beyond." The first element in the Mod.Pers. tarâvoš "exuding, trickling, oozing" is probably this prefix, → permeability. Another case may be tarzafân, tarzabân "interpreter, translator," with zafân, zabân, → language.

trans-Neptunian object (TNO)
  بر‌آخت ِ ترا-نپتونی   
barâxt-e tarâ-Nneptuni

Fr.: objet trans-neptunien   

A member of a class of objects in orbit around the Sun at a larger distance than the distance between Neptune and the Sun. This includes several → dwarf planets, such as → Eris, → Pluto, and many small solar system bodies.

trans-; → Neptune; → object.

transauroral line
  خط ِ ترا-اوشه‌ای   
xatt-e tarâ-uše-yi

Fr.: raie transaurorale   

A forbidden line emitted by interstellar ionized gas by several atomic species (O, O+, O++, N+, S++, etc.) corresponding to the transition from the electronic state 1S to 3P. Examples are the ultraviolet line of the doubly ionized oxygen [O III] at 2321 A and [N II] 3063 A. → auroral line; → forbidden line; → nebular line.

trans-; → auroral line.

tarâfarâzandé (#)

Fr.: transcendant   

1) General: Surpassing or superior.
2) Math.: → transcendental function, → transcendental number.

From transcendentalis, from transcendere "to climb over or beyond, surmount," from → trans- "beyond" + scandere "to climb" + -alis, → -al.

Tarâfarâzandé, from tarâ- "beyond, over," → trans-, + farâzandé agent noun of farâzandan "to raise, erect, exalt," from farâz "above, up, upon, on the top, aloft," from Mid.Pers. farâz, farâc "forward, prominent, distinguished;" Av. frānk- (adj.) "turned toward the front," fraca (adv.) "forward, forth," fraš (adv.) "forward, forth; before;" Proto-Iranian *frānk-.

transcendental function
  کریای ِ ترا-فرازنده   
karyâ-ye tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: fonction transcendante   

A function which is not → algebraic. For example y = cosx, y = 10xx.

transcendental; → function.

transcendental logic
  گوییک ِ ترافرازنده   
guyik-e tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: logique transcendantale   

In Kantian epistemology, a pure logic which contains solely the rules of the pure thought of an object, excluding any mode of knowledge with empirical content. Whereas general logic is not concerned with the origin of our cognitions, transcendental logic would contain rules for the use of → a priori cognitions.

transcendental; → logic.

transcendental number
  عدد ِ ترا-فرازنده   
adad-e tarâfarâzandé

Fr.: nombre transcendant   

A → real number that is not a → root of any → algebraic equation with → rational → coefficients. Every transcendental number is → irrational. Examples of transcendental numbers are π = 3.1415926... and e = 2.7182818...

transcendental; → number.

  ترا-هاوشانی، ترا-هاوشان‌مندی   
tarâ-hâvešâni, tarâ-hâvešânmand

Fr.: transdisciplinaire   

Of a comprehensive framework that transcends the partial scope of disciplinary worldviews through an overarching synthesis, such as general systems, feminist theory, and sustainability. The term also connotes a new structure of unity informed by the worldview of complexity in science and a new mode of knowledge production that draws on expertise from a wider range of organizations, and collaborations with stakeholders in society. See also → interdisciplinary and → multidisciplinary (Thompson Klein, J. 2010, Creating Interdisciplinary Campus Culture, John Wiley and Sons, Inc.).

trans-; → disciplinary.



To convert (energy) from one form into another.

From L. transducere "lead across, transfer," from → trans- "across" + ducere "to lead."

Tarâhâxtan, from tarâ-, → trans-, + hâxtan, hâzidan, from Mid.Pers. "to lead, guide, persuade," Av. hak-, hacaiti "to attach oneself to, to join," cf. Skt. sacate "accompanies, follows," Gk. hepesthai "to follow,", L. sequi "to follow;" PIE *sekw-.


Fr.: transducteur   

A device that converts one type of energy to another for various purposes, such as a microphone that converts acoustic energy into electrical impulses or a photodetector that converts modulated light waves to electrical currents.

Agent noun of → transduce.

  ۱) تراوژ؛ ۲) تراوژیدن   
1) tarâvaž 2) tarâvažidan

Fr.: 1) transfert; 2) transférer   

1) The conveying of something or energy from one place or position to another.
charge-transfer device; → energy transfer; → heat transfer; → optical transfer function; → radiative transfer; → radiative transfer equation.
2a) To convey or pass from one place to another.
2b) To copy information or images from one place or object to another.

M.E. transferren (v.), from L. transferre "to carry over, transfer, translate," from → trans- "across" + ferre "to carry;" cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, transport;" Mid.Pers. burdan; O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive);" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry."

Tarâvaž, from tarâ-, → trans- "across," + važ, variant vâz (in parvâz), Av. vaz- "to draw, guide; bring; possess; fly; float," vazaiti "guides, leads" (cf. Skt. vah- "to carry, drive, convey," vahati "carries," pravaha- "bearing along, carrying," pravāha- "running water, stream, river;" L. vehere "to carry;" O.E. wegan "to carry;" O.N. vegr; O.H.G. weg "way," wegan "to move," wagan "cart;" M.Du. wagen "wagon;" PIE base *wegh- "to drive;" see also → flight).

transfer function
  کریای ِ تراوژ   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž

Fr.: fonction de transfert   

The mathematical relationship between the output of a control system and its input: for a linear system, it is the Laplace transform of the output divided by the Laplace transform of the input under conditions of zero initial-energy storage.

transfer; → function.

  ۱) ترادیس؛ ۲) ترادیسیدن   
1) tarâdis (#); 2) tarâdisidan (#)

Fr.: 1) transformée, transformation; 2) transformer   

1) Math.: A mathematical quantity obtained from a given quantity by an algebraic, geometric, or functional transformation.
The transformation itself.
2) To change in form, appearance, or structure; to change in condition, nature, or character; convert.
Physics: To change into another form of energy.
To increase or decrease (the voltage and current characteristics of an alternating-current circuit), as by means of a transformer.
Math.: To change the form of (a figure, expression, etc.) without in general changing the value.

trans- + → form.

  ترادیسش، ترادیس   
tarâdiseš (#), tarâdis (#)

Fr.: transformation   

1) The act or process of transforming. The state of being transformed.
2) The relationship between description of a physical phenomenon in one → reference frame to another. → Galilean transformation; → Lorentz transformation.
3) Math.: The act, process, or result of transforming or mapping.

Verbal noun of → transform.

  ترادیسگر، ترادیسنده   
tarâdisgar (#), tarâdisandé (#)

Fr.: transformateur   

A device that converts low voltages to higher voltages, or vice versa. A transformer consists of a primary coil and a secondary coil, both traversed by the same magnetic flux.

transform + → -or.

gozarâ (#)

Fr.: transitoire   

General: Lasting for only a short time; not permanent.
Physics: A non-periodic signal of short duration. A sudden pulse of voltage or current.

From L. transiens "passing over or away," pr.p. of L. transire "to go or cross over," from → trans- "cross" + ire "to go."

Gozarâ "transient," from gozar present stem of gozaštan "to pass, cross, transit," variant gozâštan "to put, to place, let, allow;" Mid.Pers. widardan, widâštan "to pass, to let pass (by);" O.Pers. vitar- "to pass across," viyatarayam "I put across;" Av. vi-tar- "to pass across," from vi- "apart, away from" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Av. vi- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over;" → trans-.

transient lunar phenomenon (TLP)
  پدیده‌ی ِ مانگی ِ گذرا، ~ ماهی ِ ~   
padide-ye mângi-ye gozarâ, ~ mâhi-ye

Fr.: phénomène lunaire transitoire   

A short-lived change in the brightness of patches on the face of the Moon. The TLPs last from a few seconds to a few hours and can grow from less than a few to a hundred kilometers in size. They have been reported by many observers since the invention of the telescope. However, the physical mechanism responsible for creating a TLP is not well understood. Several theories have been proposed, among which lunar outgassing, that is, gas being released from the surface of the Moon.

transient; → lunar; → phenomenon.

transient sky
  آسمان ِگذرا   
âsmân-e gozarâ

Fr.: ciel transitoire   

A general term for all events of astronomical nature occurring in the sky and lasting only for a relatively short duration, such as → supernova explosions, → gamma-ray bursts, → flare stars, → luminous red novae, eclipsing brown dwarfs, → tidal disruption events, etc.

transient; → sky.

transient X-ray source
  خنِ پرتوِ ایکسِ گذرا   
xan-e partow-e iks-e gozarâ

Fr.: source de rayons X transitoire   

An X-ray source that appears suddenly in the sky, strongly increases its intensity over a few days, and then declines with a lifetime of several months.

transient; → X-ray source.

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