An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 573
translucent cloud
  ابر ِ تراتاب   
abr-e tarâtâb

Fr.: nuage translucide   

A type of → interstellar medium cloud where → carbon (C), in → ionized atomic form and protected from → interstellar radiation, transforms into neutral atomic or molecular form. The chemistry in this regime is qualitatively different than in the → diffuse molecular clouds, both because of the decreasing electron fraction and because of the abundance of the highly reactive C atoms. The translucent cloud regime is the least well understood of all the cloud types. This is partly because of a relative lack of observational data, but also because theoretical models do not all agree on the chemical behavior in this transition region. In some models, there is a zone where the abundance of C exceeds that of C+ and CO; in others the peak abundance of C falls below that of C+ and CO. To cope with this uncertainty, Snow & McCall (2006) propose a working definition of translucent cloud material as gas with C+ fraction < 0.5 and CO fraction < 0.9. This definition reflects the fact that C+ is no longer the dominant form of carbon as it converts to neutral or molecular form, but also excludes the → dense molecular clouds, where carbon is almost exclusively CO (Snow & McCall, 2006, ARA&A 44, 367).

translucent; → cloud.

translunar
  آنسوماهی، آنسومانگی، ترامانگی   
ânsumâhi, ânsumângi, tarâmângi

Fr.: translunaire   

The space beyond the orbit of the Moon. Compare to → cislunar.

trans- + → lunar.

Ânsumâhi, ânsumângi, from ânsu "the other side," from ân "that" + su "side" + mâhi, mângi, → lunar; tarâ-, → trans-.

transmission
  تراگسیل   
tarâgosil (#)

Fr.: transmission   

1) The act or process of transmitting. The fact of being transmitted.
2) The broadcasting of electromagnetic waves from one location to another, as from a transmitter to a receiver.

Verbal noun of → transmit.

transmission band
  باند ِ تراگسیل   
bând-e tarâgosil (#)

Fr.: bande de transmission   

The frequency range above the cutoff frequency in a waveguide or transmission line.

transmission; → band.

transmission coefficient
  همگر ِ تراگسیل   
hamgar-e tarâgosil

Fr.: coefficient de transmission   

The ratio given by the → amplitude (or energy) of a transmitted wave divided by the amplitude (or energy) of the incident wave.

transmission; → coefficient.

transmission grating
  توری ِ تراگسیلی   
turi-ye tarâgosili

Fr.: réseau par transmission   

A diffraction grating that has grooves ruled onto a transparent material so that a beam of light passed through the grating is partly split into spectral orders.

transmission; → grating.

transmission loss
  دسترفت ِ تراگسیل   
dastraft-e tarâgosil

Fr.: perte de transmission   

A decrease in power in transmission from one point to another.

transmission; → loss.

transmission system
  راژمان ِ تراگسیل   
râžmân-e tarâgosil

Fr.: système de transmission   

An assembly of elements which are capable of functioning together to transmit power or signals.

transmission; → system.

transmit
  تراگسیلیدن   
tarâgosilidan (#)

Fr.: transmettre   

To cause (light, heat, sound, etc.) to pass through a medium.

M.E. transmitten, from L. transmittere "send across, transfer, pass on," from → trans- "across" + mittere "to send."

Tarâgosilidan, infinitive of tarâgosli, from tarâ-trans- "across" + gosil "sending away, dismission," variant gosi; Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call."

transmitter
  تراگسیلنده، تراگسیلگر   
tarâgosilandé, tarâgosilgar

Fr.: transmetteur   

A device or equipment which converts audio, video, or coded signals into modulated radio frequency signals which can be propagated by electromagnetic waves.

Agent noun of → transmit.

transmutation
  تراموتش   
tarâmuteš

Fr.: transmutation   

The act or process of transmuting.
Physics: Any process in which a nuclide is transformed into a different nuclide, usually one of a different element.

Verbal noun of → transmute.

transmute
  تراموتیدن   
tarâmutidan

Fr.: transmuter   

To change from one nature, substance, form, or condition into another.

M.E., from L. transmutare "to shift," from → trans- + mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mith- "to alternate, meet," mithás "opposite, in opposition;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).

Tarâmutidan, from tarâ-trans- + mutidan, from L. mutare, as above.

transparent
  ترانما   
tarânemâ (#)

Fr.: transparent   

Allowing → electromagnetic radiation  of → specific → wavelengths to pass through. See also → translucent.

From M.L. transparentem (nominative transparens), pr.p. of transparere "to show through," from L. → trans- "through" + parere "to come in sight, appear."

Tarânemâ, from tarâ-, → trans-, + nemâ present stem of nemudan "to show" (Mid.Pers. nimūdan, nimây- "to show," from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + māy- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure").

transponder
  تراگو   
tarâgu

Fr.: transpondeur   

An emitter-receiver device that automatically responds upon reception of a designated incoming radar, radio or sonar signal

From trans(mitter), → trans-, + (res)ponder, → responder.

transport
  ۱) ترابرد، ترابری؛ ۲) ترابردن   
1) tarâbord (#), tarâbari (#); 2) tarâbordan

Fr.: transport   

1) The act of carrying or moving from one place to another.
2) To take or carrysomething from one place to another.

M.E. transporten, from O.Fr. transporter "to carry or convey across," from L. transportare, from → trans- "across" + portare "to carry."

Tarâbord, tarâbari, from tarâ-, → trans-, + bord, bari, from bordan "to carry, transport;" Mid.Pers. burdan; O.Pers./Av. bar- "to bear, carry," barəθre "to bear (infinitive);" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein "to carry;" L. ferre "to carry;" PIE base *bher- "to carry."

transpose
  ۱) ترانهادن؛ ۲) ترانهاد   
1) tarânehâdan; 2) tarânehâd

Fr.: 1) transposer; 2) transpose   

1) To transfer a mathematical → term from one side of an → equation to the other, with corresponding change of sign.
2) Of a → matrix, to interchange → rows and → columns.
3) The mathematical object obtained by replacing all → elements aij with aji.

From M.E. transposen, from O.Fr. transposer, from L. transponere "to place over," from → trans- + ponere "to put, place."

Tarânehâdan, tarânehâd, from tarâ-, → trans-, + nehâdan "to place, put; to set;" Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + dâ- "to put; to establish; to give," dadâiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadâti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give").

transposed matrix
  ماتریس ِ ترانهاده   
mâtris-e tarânahâdé

Fr.: matrice transposée   

The matrix of → order n x m obtained from a matrix of order m x n by exchanging the order of the → rows and → columns.

Tansposed, p.p. of → transpose; → matrix.

transposition
  ترانهش   
tarâneheš

Fr.: transposition   

Math.: A permutation of a set of elements that interchanges two elements and leaves the remaining elements in their original positions. For example, the swapping of 2 and 5 to take the list 123456 to 153426 is a transposition.
Optics: The changing of the relative curves of a lens without changing its refractive value.

trans-; → position.

transuranium element
  بن‌پار ِ ترا-اورانیومی   
bonpâr-e tarâ-urâniomi

Fr.: élément transuranien   

An element beyond uranium in the periodic table, with atomic number greater than 92. Such elements do not occur in nature, but may be obtained by suitable nuclear reactions. They are all radioactive and members of the actinide group.

trans-; → uranium; → element.

transversal
  تراگذر   
tarâgozar (#)

Fr.: transversale   

A line that cuts across two or more lines. A transversal cutting two lines generates eight angles, four lying between the two lines, four external to the two lines.

M.E., from M.L. transversalis, from → transverse + → -al.

transverse.

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