An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 573
tarâgozar (#)

Fr.: transverse   

Lying or extending crosswise or at right angles to something. → transverse velocity; → transverse wave.

From L. transversus "turned or directed across," p.p. of transvertere "to turn across," from → trans- + vertere "to turn," cognate with Pers. gardidan "to turn, to change;" Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend."

Tarâgozar, from tarâ-trans- + gozar "passage, transit, passing," from gozaštan "to pass, cross, transit," variant gozâštan "to put, to place, let, allow;" Mid.Pers. widardan, widâštan "to pass, to let pass (by);" O.Pers. vitar- "to pass across," viyatarayam "I put across;" Av. vi-tar- "to pass across," from vi- "apart, away from" (O.Pers. viy- "apart, away;" Av. vi- "apart, away;" cf. Skt. vi- "apart, asunder, away, out;" L. vitare "to avoid, turn aside") + O.Pers./Av. tar- "to cross over;" → trans-.

transverse gauge
  گز ِ تراگذر   
gaz-e tarâgozar

Fr.: jauge transverse   

Same as the → Coulomb gauge.

transverse; → gauge.

transverse mass
  جرم ِ تراگذر   
jerm-e tarâgozar

Fr.: masse transverse   

In special relativity theory, the mass when the acceleration of a body is perpendicular to its velocity: mt = m0 / [1 - (v/c)2]1/2, where m0 is the → rest mass, v is the velocity, and c the → velocity of light. The transverse mass is identical to the → relativistic mass. See also → longitudinal mass.

transverse; → mass.

transverse velocity
  تندای ِ تراگذر   
tondâ-ye tarâgozar

Fr.: vitesse transverse   

Same as → tangential velocity.

transverse; → velocity.

transverse wave
  موج ِ تراگذر   
mowj-e tarâgozar

Fr.: onde transversale   

A wave in which the vibration or displacement takes place in a plane at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave; e.g. electromagnetic radiation. → longitudinal wave.

transverse; → wave.

transverse Zeeman effect
  اُسکر ِ زیمن ِ تراگذر   
oskar-e Zeeman-e tarâgozar

Fr.: effet Zeeman transverse   

The → Zeeman effect when observed at right angles to the orientation of the magnetic field. Un un-displaced line is observed along with a doublet, three lines in all, with the frequencies ν and ν ± Δν. The two displaced components correspond to a plane of → polarization parallel to the external magnetic field and the un-displaced line to a plane of polarization perpendicular to this field. → longitudinal Zeeman effect.

transverse; → Zeeman effect.

zuzanaqé (#)

Fr.: trapèze   

A four-sided plane figure, no two sides of which are parallel.

L.L. trapezium, from Gk. trapezion "irregular quadrilateral," literally "a little table," diminutive of trapeza "table," from shortening of *tetrapeza, from → tetra- "four" + peza "foot, edge," related to pous, podos, Pers. , → foot.

Zuzanaqé, loan from Ar. dhuzanaqat.

Trapezium cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ ذوزنقه   
xuše-ye zuzanaqé

Fr.: amas du Trapèze   

A star cluster located in the center of the → Orion Nebula whose four brightest stars form the vertices of a trapezoid. They are known as θ1 Ori A, B, C, and D and are of magnitude 6.7, 8.0, 5.1, and 6.7 respectively. They are packed in an area 22 arcseconds across (10,000 A.U.). The Trapezium stars are responsible for the illumination of the entire Orion Nebula. The principal and the most massive star of the group is θ1Ori C, a young main sequence → O star of type O6. The three others are → B stars. Almost all of the Trapezium stars are multiple: the most massive star θ1Ori C is double, the next massive star θ1Ori A is triple, θ1Ori B is at least quadruple, and θ1Ori D is apparently single.

trapezium; → cluster.

  ۱) سفر؛ ۲) سفریدن، سفر کردن   
1) safar (#); 2) safar kardan, safaridan

Fr.: 1) voyage; 2) voyger   

1) The act of traveling, especially to a distant place.
2) To go, move, or journey from one place to another.

M.E. from travailen "to make a journey," originally the same word as Fr. travail "work, labor" (by shift to "make a laborious journey").

Safar, from Ar.

  سفرنده، سفرگر   
safarandé, safargar

Fr.: voyageur   

(British: traveller) A person or thing that travels.

travel; → -er.

deraxt (#)

Fr.: arbre   

1) A tall, woody perennial plant usually with a single trunk.
2) Math.: → factor tree.
3) A → data structure that is used to represent hierarchical data.
4) In → graph theory, a → connected graph with no → cycles.
5) A mathematical structure that can be viewed as either a graph or as a data structure. Many powerful algorithms in computer science and software engineering are tree based algorithms.

M.E., from O.E. treo, treow "tree, wood," from P.Gmc. *trewan (cf. O.S. trio, O.N. tre, Goth. triu), from PIE *deru- "wood" (cf. Mod.Pers. dâr "tree;" O.Pers. dāruv- "wood;" Av. dāuru- "piece of wood, tree trunk;" Skt. dāru- "tree, wood;" Gk. drus "tree;" Serb. drvo "tree;" L. larix "larch tree;" Rus. drevo "tree, wood;" Pol. drwa "wood;" Lith. derva "pine wood;" O.Ir. daur, Welsh derwen "oak").

Deraxt "tree;" Mid.Pers. draxt "tree," two possible etymologies. A suffixed variant of dâr "tree," cognate with E. tree, as above. Alternatively, from Av. *draxta- "firmly stood, fixed" (as in handraxta-), from drang-, dranj- "to fix, fasten, strengthen, hold," dražaite "holds," infinitive drājnhe; cf. Khotanese drys- "to hold;" Sogdian drγ- "to hold;" Parthian Mid.Pers. drxs "to endure."

tree structure
  ساختار ِ درختی   
sâxtâr-e deraxti

Fr.: structure en arborescence   

A type of → data structure in which each element is attached to one or more elements in a hierarchical manner. Trees are often called inverted trees because they are normally drawn with the root at the top.

tree; → structure.

tree view
  دید ِ درختی   
did-e deraxti

Fr.: arborescence   

A graphical representation that displays a hierarchical view of data.

tree; → view.

ravâl (#)

Fr.: tendance   

A general tendency, course, or direction.

From M.E. trenden "to roll about, turn, revolve," from O.E. trendan, (cf. O.E. trinde "round lump, ball," O.Fris. trind, M.L.G. trint "round," M.L.G. trent "ring, boundary," Du. trent "circumference," Dan. trind "round").

Ravâl, from row present stem of raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack") + suffix -âl, → -al.


Fr.: trépidation   

In medieval astronomy, a spurious oscillatory motion of the equinoxes thought to have a period of 7,000 years. This concept, attributed to Thâbit ibn Qurra (c. 830-901), had a profound influence on medieval astronomy. In order to explain trepidation, Thâbit was said to have added a new sphere to the eight Ptolemaic spheres beyond the sphere of fixed stars.

From L. trepidationem "agitation, trembling," from trepidare "to tremble, hurry," from trepidus "anxious, scared;" cf. Skt. trprá- "hasty;" PIE base *trep- "to shake, tremble."

Larzeš, verbal noun of larzidan "to tremble, shiver;" Mid.Pers. larzidan "to shake, tremble;" Manichean Mid.Pers. rarz- "to shiver with fever;" Proto-Iranian *rarz- "to shake, tremble."

  ۱) ترارفت؛ ۲) ترارفتن   
1) tarâraft; 2) tarâraftan

Fr.: 1) entrée non autorisée; 2) pénétrer sans autorisation   

1) Law: An unlawful act causing injury to the person, property, or rights of another, committed with force or violence, actual or implied. → light trespass.
2) To commit a transgression or offense; transgress; offend; sin (

M.E. trespas, from O.Fr. trespasser "pass beyond or across, cross, traverse; infringe, violate," from tres- "beyond," from L. → trans-, + passer "go by, pass," → pass, → passage.

Tarâraft, tarâraftan, from tarâ-, → trans-, + raft, raftan "to go," → process.

  سه‌گوش، سه‌گوشه، سه‌بر   
seguš (#), segušé; (#), sebar (#)

Fr.: triangle   

The plane figure formed by three lines intersecting in pairs at three points; a three-sided → polygon. → equilateral triangle, → isosceles triangle, → scalene triangle.

M.E., from O.Fr. triangle, from L. triangulum "triangle," from neuter of adj. triangulus "three-cornered," from tri-, → three, + angulus "corner," → angle.

Seguš "three-cornered," from , → three, + guš "corner, → angle."
Sebar "three-sided," from , → three, + bar "→ side; breadth; breast."

triangle inequality
  ناهموگی ِ سه‌بری   
nâhamugi-ye sebari

Fr.: inégalité triangulaire   

1) A theorem according to which any side of a triangle is always shorter than the sum of the other two sides.
2) The third requirement for a → distance function describing a → metric space.

triangle; → inequality.

segušbandi (#)

Fr.: triangulation   

In surveying and navigation, the process of deriving the linear distance between any two remote points by the division of a large area into adjacent triangles and using trigonometric relationships. See also → trilateration.

From M.L. triangulation-, from triangulare "to make triangles," → triangle.

Seguš-bandi, from , → three, + guš/gušé, → angle, + bandi verbal noun from bastan "to form, bind, tie" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" Ger. binden; E. bind; PIE base *bhendh- "to bind").

Sebar (#)

Fr.: Triangle   

The Triangle. A small northern constellation between → Andromeda and → Aries, at 2h right ascension, 32° north declination. Its three brightest stars, of magnitudes 3.0, 3.4, and 4.0, form a small, elongated isosceles triangle. One of the constellations listed by Ptolemy. The famous → spiral galaxy → M33 lies in Triangulum. Abbreviation: Tri; genitive: Trianguli.


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