An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 54 Search : formation
image formation
  دیسش ِ وینه، ~ تصویر   
diseš-e vine, ~ tasvir

Fr.: formation de l'image   

The meeting of light rays emanating from an object after crossing an optical system.

image; → formation.

azdâyeš (#)

Fr.: information   

1) Knowledge gained through study, communication, research, instruction, etc.
2) Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or circumstance; news.
3) The act or fact of informing.
4) A sequence of signals that conveys a message to a receiver. Information does not exist on its own. It is contained within something and is coded. The notion of information involves → uncertainty and → randomness; hence the necessity for calling on → probability theory and → statistics.
See also: → information content, → information entropy, → information flow, → information paradox, → information science, → information technology, → information theory, → infosphere, → quantum information, → entropy.

Verbal noun of → inform.

information content
  پربنه‌ی ِ ازدایش   
parbane-ye azdâyeš

Fr.: contenu d'information   

The → negative of the → logarithm of the → probability that a particular → message or → symbol will be emitted by a → source.

information; → content.

information entropy
  درگاشت ِ ازدایش   
dargâšt-e azdâyeš

Fr.: entropie de l'information   

The measure of information, which is usually expressed by the average number of bits needed for storage or communication. In other words, the degree to which the values of a → random variable X are dispersed. If the → probability density function of X is P(x), the entropy is defined by: H(X) = -Σ P(x) log P(x). Also called → Shannon entropy.

information; → entropy.

information flow
  تچان ِ ازدایش   
tacân-e azdâyeš

Fr.: flot d'information   

The flow of data into a system or to the end users.

information; → flow.

information paradox
  پارادخش ِ ازدایش   
pârâdaxš-e azdâyeš

Fr.: paradoxe de l'information   

A paradox raised in 1976 by S. Hawking (1942-2018) whose analysis of the thermodynamic properties of → black holes led him to the prediction that black holes are not in fact black, but radiate due to quantum effects. This implied that, due to the → Hawking radiation, a black hole would eventually evaporate away, leaving nothing. This deduction presented a problem for → quantum mechanics, which maintains that information can never be lost. This topic is a matter of intense debate. Many solutions have been proposed, but all of them have serious drawbacks. In order to analyze better these solutions one needs a quantum gravity theory, which does not exist at the moment. In brief, either the idea of → quantum unitarity must be given up, or a mechanism should be found by which information is not lost after it falls into a black hole.

information; → paradox.

information science
  دانش ِ ازدایش، ازداییک   
dâneš-e azdâyeš azdâyik (#)

Fr.: informatique   

Same as → informatics.

information; → science.

information technology
  تشنیک‌شناسی ِ ازدایش   
tašnik-šenâsi-ye azdâyeš

Fr.: technologie de l'informtion   

The science and activity of receiving, storing, processing, and transmitting information by using → computers.

information; → technology.

information theory
  نگره‌ی ِ ازدایش   
negare-ye azdâyeš (#)

Fr.: théorie de l'information   

The mathematical theory that defines, quantifies, and analyzes the concept of → information. It involves → probability theory in → transmission of → messages when the → bits of information are subject to various distortions. Its goal is to enable as much information as possible to be reliably stored on a medium, retrieved, or communicated.
See also:
information content, → information entropy, → information flow, → information paradox, → information science, → information theory, → quantum information, → entropy.

information; → theory.

isolated massive star formation
  دیسش ِ وایوتیده‌ی ِ ستاره‌ی ِ پرجرم   
diseš-e vâyutide-ye setâre-ye porjerm

Fr.: formation isolée d'étoile massive   

Massive star formation outside → OB associations. Recent observational findings suggest that → massive star formation is a collective process. In other words, massive stars form in → cluster environments and the mass of the most massive star in a cluster is correlated with the mass of the cluster itself. Nevertheless, other observational results give grounds for supposing that massive stars do not necessarily form in clusters but that they can be formed as isolated stars or in very small groups. According to statistical studies nearly 95% of Galactic → O star population is located in clusters or OB associations. This means that a small percentage, about 5%, of high mass stars may form in isolation. Isolation is meant not traceable to an origin in an OB association. This definition therefore excludes → runaway massive stars, which are thought to result from either dynamical interaction in massive dense clusters, or via a kick from a → supernova explosion in a → binary system. Alternatively, isolated massive star has been defined as follows: An O-type star belonging to a cluster whose total mass is < 100 Msun and moreover is devoid of → B stars (Selier et al. 2011, A&A 529, A40 and references therein).

isolated; → massive star; → formation.

Legendre transformation
  ترادیسش ِ لوژاندر   
tarâdiseš-e Legendre

Fr.: transformation de Legendre   

A mathematical operation that transforms one function into another. Two differentiable functions f and g are said to be Legendre transforms of each other if their first derivatives are inverse functions of each other: df(x)/dx = (dg(x)/dx)-1. The functions f and g are said to be related by a Legendre transformation.

Legendre equation; → transformation.

Lorentz transformation
  ترادیس ِ لورنتز   
tarâdis-e Lorentz

Fr.: transformation de Lorentz   

A set of linear equations that expresses the time and space coordinates of one → reference frame in terms of those of another one when one frame moves at a constant velocity with respect to the other. In general, the Lorentz transformation allows a change of the origin of a coordinate system, a rotation around the origin, a reversal of spatial or temporal direction, and a uniform movement along a spatial axis. If the system S'(x',y',z',t') moves at the velocity v with respect to S(x,y,z,t) in the positive direction of the x-axis, the Lorentz transformations will be: x' = γ(x - vt), y' = y, z' = z, t' = γ [t - (vx/c2)], where c is the → velocity of light and γ = [1 - (v/c)2]-1/2. For the special case of velocities much less than c, the Lorentz transformation reduces to → Galilean transformation.

Lorentz; → transformation.

lunar formation
  دیسش ِ مانگ   
diseš-e Mâng

Fr.: formation de la Lune   

See → Moon formation.

lunar; → formation.

Moon formation
  دیسش ِ مانگ   
diseš-e Mâng

Fr.: formation de la Lune   

Any of several theories about how the → Moon originated, among which: → fission theory, → capture theory, → co-formation theory, and → giant impact hypothesis. The model that is best supported by all the available data is the giant impact hypothesis. See also → canonical model.

lunar; → formation.

plastic deformation
  وادیسش ِ شوکایند   
vâdiseš-e šukâyand

Fr.: déformation plastique   

Permanent → deformation of a → solid subjected to a → stress.

plastic; → deformation.

quantum information
  ازدایش ِ کو‌آنتومی   
azdâyeš-e kuântomi

Fr.: information quantique   

The science concerned with the transmission, storage, and processing of information using quantum mechanical systems. It exploits the notion of → quantum entanglement between systems and joins several fields of knowledge, mainly quantum physics, information, computation, and probability.

quantum; → information.

sequential star formation
  دیسش ِ پی‌آیه‌ای ِ ستاره   
diseš-e peyâye-yi-e setâré

Fr.: formation séquentielle d'étoiles   

The formation of second-generation stars in a → molecular cloud, as triggered by the presence of → massive stars. The observation that some nearby → OB associations contain distinct, spatially separate subgroups of → OB stars in a sequence of monotonically changing age led Blaauw (1964, ARA&A 2, 213) to suggest that star formation in fact occurs in sequential bursts during the lifetimes of the corresponding molecular clouds. The first quantitative model of this mechanism was presented by Elmegreen and Lada (1977, ApJ 214, 725), who showed that the powerful ultraviolet photons of the massive star create an → ionization front which advances in the molecular cloud and is preceded by a → shock front. The compressed neutral gas lying between the ionization and shock fronts is gravitationally unstable and collapses in time-scales of a few million years to form a new generation of massive stars. The propagation of successive births of OB groups would produce a chain of associations presenting a gradient of age. Elmegreen and Lada estimated the propagation velocity to be 5 km s-1. For a region with a length larger than 100 pc, this would imply an age difference of the order of 20 million years between the extremities. See also → stimulated star formation, → triggered star formation; → collect and collapse model.

sequential; → star formation.

similarity transformation
  ترادیسش ِ همانندی   
tarâdiseš-e hamânandi

Fr.: transformation de similarité   

1) A transformation that preserves angles and changes all distances in the same ratio.
2) A transformation of the form B = X-1AX relating two → square matrices A and B.

similarity; → transformation.

specific star formation rate (sSFR)
  نرخ ِ آبیزه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
nerx-e âbize-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: taux de formation d'étoiles spécifique   

Star formation rate per unit → mass. More specifically, the → star formation rate in a galaxy divided by the → stellar mass of the galaxy. Observations of galaxies over a wide range of → redshifts suggest that the slope of the SFR-M* relation is about unity, which implies that their sSFR does not depend strongly on stellar mass. Specific star formation rates increase out to z ~ 2 and are constant, or perhaps slowly increasing, from z = 2 out to z = 6, though with a large scatter, sSFR ~ 2-10 Gyr-1 (Lehnert et al., 2015, A&A 577, A112, and references therein).

specific; → star; → formation; → rate.

star formation
  دیسش ِ ستاره   
diseš-e setâré

Fr.: formation d'étoiles   

The process by which dense parts of molecular clouds collapse into a ball of plasma to form a star. As a branch of astronomy, star formation includes the study of the interstellar medium and molecular clouds as precursors to the star formation process as well as the study of young stellar objects.

star; → formation.

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