An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 1965 Search : ion

Fr.: éjection   

Act or instance of ejecting; the state of being ejected.

Verbal noun of → eject.

elastic collision
  همکوبش ِ کشایند   
hamkubš-e kešâyand

Fr.: collision élastique   

A collision between two particles which conserves the total kinetic energy and momentum of the system.

elastic; → collision.

elastic deformation
  وادیسش ِ کشایند   
vâdiseš-e kešâyand

Fr.: déformation élastique   

A deformation of a → solid body in which the change (→ strain) in the relative position of points in the body disappears when the deforming stress is removed. See also → elastic limit.

elastic; → deformation.

electromagnetic induction
  درهازش ِ برقامغناتی   
darhâzeš-e barqâmeqnâti

Fr.: induction électromagnétique   

The production of an → electromotive force in a circuit caused by a variation in the magnetic flux through the circuit. If this variation is produced by a change in the current flowing in the circuit itself, it is called → self-induction. If due to the variation in a current in some other circuit, it is called mutual induction. See also → Faraday's law of induction.

electromagnetic; → induction.

electromagnetic radiation
  تابش ِ برقامغناتی   
tâbeš-e barqâmeqnâti

Fr.: rayonnement électromagnétique   

Radiation propagating in the form of an advancing wave in electric and magnetic fields. It includes radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

electromagnetic; → radiation.

electron configuration
  همپیکرش ِ الکترونی   
hampeykareš-e elektroni

Fr.: configuration électronique   

Of an atom, a form of notation which shows how the electrons are distributed among the various atomic orbital and energy levels. The format consists of a series of numbers, letters and superscripts. For example, 1s2 2s2 2p3 means: 2 electrons in the 1s subshell, 2 electrons in the 2s subshell, and 3 electrons in the 2p subshell.

electron; → configuration.

electron diffraction
  پراش ِ الکترونی   
parâš-e elekroni (#)

Fr.: diffraction des électrons   

A diffraction phenomenon resulting from the passage of electrons through matter, analogous to the diffraction of visible light. This phenomenon is the main evidence for the existence of waves associated with elementary particles; → de Broglie wavelength.

electron; → diffraction.

electronic transition
  گذرش ِ الکترونی   
gozareš-e elektroni

Fr.: transition électronique   

The → transfer of an → electron from one → energy level to another.

electronic; → transition.

electrostatic induction
  درهازش ِ برق‌ایستا   
darhâzeš-e barqistâ

Fr.: induction électrostatique   

The production of stationary electric charges on an uncharged object as a result of a charged body being brought near it without touching it. A positive charge will induce a negative charge, and vice versa.

electrostatic; → induction.

electroweak interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ برقانزار   
andaržireš-e barqânezâr

Fr.: interaction électrofaible   

The unified description of two of the four fundamental interactions of nature, → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction which would merge into a single force under conditions of extreme temperature (above 1016 degrees, 102 GeV) prevalent in the early history of the → Universe.

electroweak; → interaction.

elegant equation
  هموگش ِ قشنگ   
hamugeš-e qašang

Fr.: équation élégante   

An equation with surprising simplicity that expresses a fundamental result relating several apparently unassociable elements. For example, → Euler's formula for the particular case of θ = π, and the → mass-energy relation.

elegant; → equation.

element diffusion
  پخش ِ بن‌پار   
paxš-e bonpâr

Fr.: diffusion des éléments   

An important physical process occurring in stars, which is the relative separation of the various → chemical elements. It is caused by → gravitational settling and → thermal diffusion, on the one hand, and → radiative levitation on the other. This process, which was described by Michaud (1970) to account for the abundance anomalies observed in → chemically peculiar  → A star, is now recognized as occuring in all types of stars. Its influence on the observed → chemical abundances is extremely variable, however, due to competing macroscopic motions like → convective  → mixing or rotation-induced → turbulence. In the Sun, no observable abundance anomalies are expected from element diffusion, as the time scale of the process is longer than the solar lifetime. However the small induced → depletion of → helium and → heavy elements by about 20% is detectable through → helioseismology. Such detections are more difficult in stars, as only global → oscillation modes can be detected, in contrast to the Sun, where local oscillations of the surface can be analyzed (Théado et al., 2005, A&A 437, 553).

element; → diffusion.


Fr.: élevation   

1) The height to which something is elevated or to which it rises.
2) An elevated place, thing, or part; an eminence (

Verbal noun of → elevate; → -tion.


Fr.: élimination   

1) The act of eliminating; the state of being eliminated.
Math.: The process of solving a system of simultaneous → equations by using various techniques to remove the → variables successively (

Verbal noun of → eliminate; → -tion.

elliptic aberration
  بیراهش ِ بیضی‌گون   
birâheš-e biyzigun

Fr.: aberration elliptique   

That part of → annual aberration proportional to the → eccentricity of the Earth's orbit.

elliptic; → aberration.

elliptical polarization
  قطبش ِ بیضی‌گون   
qotbeš-e beyzigub

Fr.: polarization elliptique   

The → polarization of an → electromagnetic radiation in which the electric vector at any point in the path of the beam describes an ellipse in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction. Elliptical polarization results from the combination of two perpendicular → linearly polarized waves whose → phase difference is other than 0, 90, or 180°. The form of the ellipse is determined by the amplitudes of the component waves and the phase difference. → Linear polarization and → circular polarization can be considered as limiting cases of elliptical polarization.

elliptical; → polarization.


Fr.: élongation   

1) Increase in length per unit of original length.
2) The angular distance of a planet from the Sun as seen from the Earth. An elongation of 0° is called → conjunction; one of 180° is called → opposition; and an elongation of 90° is called → quadrature.

elongate; → -tion.

runemud (#)

Fr.: émanation   

An act or instance of emanating; something that emanates or is emanated.

emanate; → -tion.


Fr.: émersion   

Astro.: Same as → egress.



Fr.: émigration   

An act or instance of emigrating; a body of emigrants; emigrants collectively.

Verbal noun of → emigrate.

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