An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 247 Search : star
multiple star
  ستاره‌ی ِ بستایی   
setâre-ye bastâyi

Fr.: étoile multiple   

A star which appears single but is in fact composed of more than two components. See also → multiple star system; → binary star; → triple star.

multiple; → star.

multiple star system
  راژمان ِ بستایی   
râšmân-e bastâyi

Fr.: système multiple   

A stellar system composed of several stars bound together by gravitational attraction and revolving around a common center of mass.

multiple; → star; → system.

naked-eye star
  ستاره‌ی ِ چشم ِ برهنه   
setâre-ye cašm-e berehné

Fr.: étoile visible à l'œil nu   

A star visible without a telescope. In principle, stars down to about sixth magnitude are visible to the naked eye under ideal conditions, but this depends on the individual, the location, and the conditions of the observation.

naked; → eye; → star.

neutron star
  ستاره‌ی ِ نوترونی، نوترون‌ستاره   
setâre-ye notroni, notron setâré (#)

Fr.: étoile à neutrons   

An extremely compact ball of matter created from the central core of a star that has collapsed under gravity to such an extent that it consists almost entirely of → neutrons. Neutron stars result from two possible evolutionary scenarios: 1) The → collapse of a → massive star during a → supernova explosion; and 2) The accumulation of mass by a → white dwarf in a → binary system. The mass of a neutron star is the same as or larger than the → Chandrasekhar limit (1.4 → solar masses). Neutron stars are only about 10 km across and have a density of 1014 g cm-3, representing the densest objects having a visible surface. The structure of neutron stars consists of a thin outer crust of about 1 km thickness composed of → degenerate electrons and nuclei, which becomes progressively neutron rich with increasing depth and pressure due to → inverse beta decays. In the main body the matter consists of → superfluid neutrons in equilibrium with their decay products, a few percent protons and electrons. Neutron stars have extremely strong magnetic fields, from 3 x 1010 to 1015 gauss. As of 2010 more than 2000 neutron stars have been catalogued, which show a large variety of manifestations, mainly → pulsars.

neutron; → star.

nonrising star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پنهان   
setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#)


A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole.

Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden."

nonsetting star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پیدا   
setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#)


A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star.

Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible.

O star
  ستاره‌ی ِ O   
setâre-ye O (#)

Fr.: étoile de type O   

A luminous, hot, blue star whose spectrum is dominated by the lines of hydrogen, atomic helium, and ionized helium; also known as O-type star. This is the earliest → spectral type and the only → main sequence star in which ionized helium is present. The → effective temperatures of these stars range from about 30,000 K to 50,000 K, their luminosities from 50,000 to 1,000,000 times that of → solar luminosity, and their masses from about 20 to 100 → solar masses. The hottest O-type stars display high ionization emission features such as N III and He II, → Of star. They are divided into subtypes O2, the hottest, to O9.7, the coldest. O-type stars are relatively rare, for each star of 100 solar masses there are 106 stars of solar mass. They are relatively short-lived since they spend only a few million years on the main sequence. The brightest O-type star in the sky visible with naked eye is → Alnitak. For prominent Galactic O stars see → HD 93129.

O, letter of alphabet used in the Harvard spectral classification; → star.

O-type star
  ستاره‌ی ِ گونه‌ی ِ O   
setâre-ye gune-ye O

Fr.: étoile de type O   

Same as → O star.

O, letter of alphabet used in the → Harvard classification; → type; → star.

OB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ OB   
setâre-ye OB

Fr.: étoile OB   

A collective designation for massive O and B stars.

O star; → B star.

OBC star
  ستاره‌ی ِ OBC   
setâre-ye OBC

Fr.: étoile OBC   

A → carbon (C)-rich → O-type or → B-type star.

O star; → B star; → carbon; → star.

OBN star
  ستاره‌ی ِ OBN   
setâre-ye OBN

Fr.: étoile OBN   

A → nitrogen (N)-rich → O-type or → B-type star.

O star; → B star; → nitrogen; → star.

Of star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Of   
setâre-ye Of

Fr.: étoile Of   

An → O star whose spectrum displays strong N III 4634-4640-4642 emission and strong He II 4686 emission. The N III lines are always much stronger than C III 4647-4650-4651 when the latter are present. Historically, Of stars were considered to belong to the peculiar category, hence the f notation (see below). In his thesis work, Walborn (1971, ApJS 23, 257) removed them from that category and established them as the normal O-type → supergiants. He also used the notation ((f)), (f), and f to describe the progression from strong He II 4686 absorption, through weakened/absent, to emission, respectively, correlated with increasing N III emission strength, subsequently showing that it is a luminosity sequence -- the first such for stars earlier than O9.

The reason for the Of designation is that the letters Oa-Oe were used in the original Harvard classification to denote various types of → Wolf-Rayet and OB spectra. Therefore Of was the next available when Plaskett and Pearce (1931, Pub. Dominion Ap. Obs 5, 99) wished to distinguish O-type spectra with selective emission in N III 4634-4640-4642 and He II 4686 ("selective" because other lines from the same ions appear in absorption); → star.

Of?p star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Of?p   
setâre-ye Of?p

Fr.: étoile Of?p   

A → massive star spectrum whose principal defining characteristics is the presence of C III 4647, 4650, 4651 emission lines with strength comparable to that of N III 4634, 4640, 4642. This category was introduced by Walborn (1972) to describe two well-known peculiar stars, HD 108 and HD 148937. → Of star

Of star; the question mark was intended to denote doubt that these stars are normal Of supergiants; p for "peculiar."

Ofpe/WN9 star
  ستاره‌ی ِ Ofpe/WN9   
setâre-ye Ofpe/WN9

Fr.: étoile Ofpe/WN9   

A small class of evolved → massive stars showing spectral properties intermediate between those of → Of star and → WN Wolf-Rayet stars. Several of them have been found to possess non-spherical nitrogen-rich circumstellar nebulae. Ofpe/WN9 stars are considered to be transition objects between Of and W-R stars. This type of stars was first identified by Walborn (1982), who introduced the classification Ofpe/WN9, indicating that the stars could not be classified solely as Of stars, nor as WNL stars. Ofpe/WN9 stars have been found in the → Milky Way, the → Large Magellanic Cloud, → M31, and M33. Currently 10 Ofpe/WN9 stars are known in the LMC. Observational evidence suggests a close relationship between the class of → LBVs and the Ofpe/WN9 stars. A notable example is the prototype Ofpe/WN9 star R127 in the LMC that became an LBV on a time-scale of the order of a year. The possibility of such a relationship has been explored by Smith et al. (1994), who proposed that some LBVs show spectral morphologies that make them appear as an extension of the WN sequence toward later spectral types. Hence, they reclassified Ofpe/WN9 stars as WN10-11.

Ofpe, from → Of star; p for "peculiar;" e refers to the presence of other emission lines in addition to the Of ones, mainly H and He I, although also Si III. This peculiar class in the LMC was first described by Walborn (1977, ApJ 215, 53), where he called them "O Iafpe extr" based on the most similar Galactic objects known at that time. Subsequently Walborn (1983, ApJ 256, 452) and Bohannan & Walborn (1989, PASP 101, 520) suggested an extension of the WN sequence and/or transition between Of and WN. This nomenclature Ofpe/WN9 has been rather widely adopted. Later on, Smith et al. (1994) broke the Ofpe/WN9 and related Galactic types into WN10-11 subtypes to include this group of emission line stars.

OH/IR star
  ستاره‌یِ OH/فروسرخ   
setâre-ye OH/forusorx

Fr.: étoile OH/IR   

An evolved Mira-type star which is associated with strong OH maser and strong infrared (IR) emission from the surrounding shell of warm gas and dust.

OH; → infrared; → star.

old star
  ستاره‌یِ کهن، کهن‌ستاره، ستاره‌ی پیر   
setâre-ye kohan (#), kohan-setâré (#), setâre-ye pir (#)

Fr.: vielle étoile   

A member of a population of stars that, according to stellar evolution theories, are almost as aged as the galaxy in which it resides.

old; → star.

optical double star
  ستاره‌یِ دوتایی ِ دیدگانی   
setâre-ye dotâyi-ye didgâni

Fr.: étoile double optique   

A pair of stars that lie close to each other in the sky by chance, but are not physically associated, in contrast to a true → binary star.

optical; → double star.

orphaned protostar
  پوروا-ستاره‌ی ِ یتیم   
purvâ-setâre-ye yatim

Fr.: proto-étoile orpheline   

A → protostellar object which has been dynamically ejected from a newborn → multiple star system, either into a tenuously bound orbit or into an escape, thus depriving it from gaining much additional mass. Recent observations have shown that → Class I protostellar sources have a population of distant companions at separations ~ 1000 to 5000 → astronomical unit (AU)s. Moreover, the companion fraction diminishes as the sources evolve. According to N-body simulations of unstable → triple systems embedded in dense cloud cores, many companions are ejected into unbound orbits and quickly escape, but others are ejected with insufficient momentum to climb out of the potential well of the cloud core and associated binary. These loosely bound companions reach distances of many thousands of AU before falling back and eventually being ejected into escapes as the cloud cores gradually disappear (B. Reipurth et al. 2010, arXiv:1010.3307).

orphan; → protostar.

P Cygni star
  ستاره‌ی ِ P Cygni   
setâre-ye P Cygni

Fr.: étoile P Cygni   

1) A variable star in the constellation → Cygnus, and one of the most luminous stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. It is a → Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) star of → spectral type B2 Ia located about 7000 light-years away. It was unknown until the 17th century, when it suddenly brightened to third magnitude. It briefly disappeared and returned, and today has a magnitude of about 4.8.
2) A member of a class of high-luminosity, early-type stars, in which spectral lines have a characteristic → P Cygni profile.

P, letter of alphabet; Cygni, pertaining to → Cygnus; → star.

pancake star
  ستاره‌ی ِ لواشوار   
setâre-ye lavâš#vaar

Fr.: étoile en crèpe   

A star strongly compressed due to the → tidal force of a → massive black hole. The intense → gravity of the → black hole pulls harder on the nearest part of the star, creating an imbalance. When the star penetrates the → tidal radius, first it becomes cigar-shaped, then the squeezing of the tidal forces flattens the star in its orbital plane to the shape of a → pancake. Next the star rebounds, and as it leaves the tidal radius, it starts to expand. A little further on its orbit the star finally breaks up into gas fragments. This flattening would increase the → density and → temperature inside the star enough to trigger intense nuclear reactions that would tear it apart (Brassart & J.-P. Luminet, 2008, Astron. Astrophys. 481, 259).

pancake; → star.

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