1) An aggregation of clusters of galaxies (→ galaxy cluster).
Superclusters are typically about one hundred million (108)
→ light-years in diameter and
contain tens of thousands of galaxies. Some examples are the
→ Local Supercluster,
→ Centaurus supercluster,
→ Laniakea supercluster,
→ Perseus-Pisces supercluster→ Shapley supercluster→ Virgo supercluster.
Grouping of galaxies in supercluster structure.
The phenomenon in which certain materials, when cooled to a sufficiently low temperature, lose all resistance to the flow of electricity.
A material which shows almost perfect conductivity at temperatures approaching absolute zero.
The process by which a liquid or a gas is cooled below the temperature at which a → phase transition should occur. For example, water can be cooled well below the → freezing point without freezing (as often happens in the upper atmosphere). The introduction of an → impurity or surface can trigger freezing.
1) Thermodynamics: Describing a condition in which a substance has
a temperature or pressure above its critical value of temperature or pressure.
Fr.: fluide supercritique
A fluid that is at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. In these conditions the substance acquires unique characteristics of density and mobility. Supercritical fluids exist deep inside some planets; for example, there is supercritical water deep inside the Earth.
A → fluid that exhibits frictionless flow, very high heat → conductivity, and other unusual physical properties. For example, → liquid helium at the temperature about 2.17 K (→ lambda point) becomes a zero → viscosity fluid which will move rapidly through any pore in the apparatus. See also → helium II.
supergalactic coordinate system
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye abarkahkašâni
Fr.: système des coordonnées supergalactiques
A spherical → coordinate system in which the → equator is the → supergalactic plane. Supergalactic longitude, SGL, is measured → counterclockwise from direction l = 137.37 deg, b = 0 deg (between 0 and 360 deg). The zero point for supergalactic longitude is defined by the intersection of this plane with the → Galactic plane. In the → equatorial coordinate system (J2000) this is approximately 2.82 h, +59.5 deg. Supergalactic latitude, SGB, is measured from the supergalactic plane, positive northward and negative southward. The North Supergalactic Pole (SGB=90 deg) lies at galactic coordinates l = 47.37 deg, b = +6.32 degrees, corresponding to the equatorial coordinate system (J2000) 18.9 h, +15.7 deg.
Fr.: latitude supergalactique
Fr.: longitude supergalactique
Fr.: plan supergalactique
The symmetry plane of the → Local Supercluster, where density of galaxies in our environment is the largest. The plane passes through the → Virgo cluster of galaxies, about which many of the brightest galaxies in the sky are concentrated. The supergalactic plane was recognized by Gérard de Vaucouleurs (1918-1995) in 1953 from the → Shapley-Ames catalogue.
supergiant B[e] star (sgB[e])
setâre-ye B[e]-ye abarqul
Fr.: étoile B[e] supergéante
A highly luminous → B[e] star with a luminosity greater than 104L_sun. A number of such objects exist in the → Magellanic Clouds, e.g. LMC R126, R66, SMC R4, and R50. A likely example in our Galaxy is MWC 300.
Fr.: cellule de supergranulation
One of a number of large convective cells (about 15,000-30,000 km in diameter) in the solar photosphere, distributed fairly uniformly over the solar disk, that last longer than a day.
Fr.: vapeur surchauffée
A vapor that has been heated above its boiling point temperature corresponding to the pressure.
The process in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling. Superheating is achieved by heating a homogeneous substance in a clean container, free of nucleation sites.
girande-ye abar-heterodini (#)
Fr.: récepteur superhétérodyne
A radio receiver which uses the → superheterodyne technique.