An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 892
advance of perihelion
  پیشرفت ِ پیراهور   
pišraft-e pirâhur

Fr.: avance du périhélie   

The slow rotation of the major axis of a planet's orbit in the same direction as the revolution of the planet itself, due mainly to gravitational interactions with other planets. The perihelion of the planet Mercury advances about 9'.6 per century. The bulk of the advance was accounted by perturbations from other planets. However, a remaining small advance, by 43'' per century, was eventually explained as an effect predicted by Einstein's theory of → general relativity. In the case of close binary stars, the advance of pericenter may additionally be caused by mass transfer and the stars' distorted (elliptical) shapes. Advance of perihelion (or pericenter) is also known as → apsidal motion.

Advance, from O.Fr. avancer "move forward," from V.L. *abantiare, from L.L. abante "from before," from ab- "from" + ante "before," PIE *ant- "front, forehead;" → perihelion.

Pišraft "advance," from piš "forward; in front; before," Mid.Pers. peš + raft "going; walk, travel," from raftan "to go."

advanced wave
  موج ِ پیشرس   
mowj-e pišras

Fr.: onde avancée   

A wave that travels backward in time according to Maxwell's electromagnetic theory; it arrives before it is transmitted. → Maxwell's equations have two solutions, the normal solution describes the ordinary waves, called → retarded waves, traveling forward in time. However, no advanced waves have ever shown up in any experiment. The advanced solutions of Maxwell's equations are usually simply discarded as "unphysical."

Advanced, adj. from advance, → advance of perihelion; → wave.

Mowj, → wave; pišras "advanced," from piš "before," Mid.Pers. peš + ras "arriving," from rasidan "to arrive," Mid.Pers. rasitan, O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- "to move, go or come toward," cf. Skt. ar-, rcchati.

advection
  پهنبز   
pahnbaz

Fr.: advection   

1) Geology: The process of transport of a quantity by the velocity field due to the movement of a fluid. Advection differs from → convection, which describes thermally driven circulation.
2) Meteorology: The predominantly horizontal, large-scale motions of the atmosphere. In contrast, convection describes the predominantly vertical, locally induced motions.

From L. advecti "act of conveying," from advectus, past participle of advehere "to carry," from ad-, "to" + vehere "to carry, bring;" Skt. vah-, vahati "to carry, conduct, guide," Av. vaz-, vazaiti "to guide, lead"; PIE *wegh- "to go, transport in a vehicle".

Pahnbaz from pahn "flat, wide, → broad," + baz "to carry," → evection.

advection term
  ترم ِ پهنبز   
tarm-e pahnbaz

Fr.: terme d'advection   

The first term on the right side in the → induction equation.

advection; → term.

advective
  پهنبزی   
pahnbazi

Fr.: advectif   

Adj. from → advection.

adverb
  اپیواز   
apivâz

Fr.: adverbe   

A word that serves to qualify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, or an entire sentence. More specifically, adverbs indicate manner, time, place, cause, or degree, and answer questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much."

From L.L. adverbium "adverb," literally "that which is added to a verb," from → ad- "to" + verbum "word, → verb," a translation of Gk. epirrhema "adverb," from → epi- "upon, on" + rhema "verb."

Apivâz, from api-, → epi-, + vâz "word," → verb.

adversary
  همستار   
hamestâr (#)

Fr.: adversaire   

1) A person, group, or force that opposes or attacks; opponent; enemy; foe.
2) A person, group, etc., that is an opponent in a contest; contestant (Dictionary.com).

M.E. adversaire; O.Fr. adversaire "opponent, adversary, rival," from L. adversarius "opposite, hostile, contrary," from adversus "turned against," from → ad- + verse, → universe.

Hamestâr, from Mid.Pers. hamestâr "adversary," from Av. hamaēstar-, from ha-, → com-, + maēd- "to bring down, to suppress."

aeolipile
  ایولیپوله   
ayolipulé

Fr.: éolipyle   

A round vessel pivoted on a central axis that rotates by the force of internal steam escaping from two diametrically opposed narrow apertures. Aeolipile, first described by Hero of Alexandria (c. 10-70 AD), is an early example of → jet propulsion.

L aeolipila, from Gk aiolipyle, from Aiolon pyle, fr. aioli-, from Aiolos "god of wind," + pyle "gate."

aeon
  آیو   
âyu

Fr.: éon   

1) General: An indefinitely long period of time; an age.
2) Geology: A unit of geologic time equal to one billion years; US eon.

L. aeon, from Gk. aion "age, eternity;" akin to Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime;" Skt. áyu- "life, longevity."

Âyu, from Av. āiiu- "duration, period, lifetime" (Sogd. āy "life, age"), as above.

aerodynamic
  هواتوانیک   
havâtavânik

Fr.: aérodynamique   

Of or pertaining to → aerodynamics.

aerodynamics.

aerodynamic force
  نیروی ِ هواتوانیک   
niru-ye havâtavânik

Fr.: force aérodynamique   

The force exerted by a gaseous fluid upon a body completely immersed in it caused by their relative motion. The components of aerodynamic force are: → lift and → drag.

aerodynamic; → force.

aerodynamics
  هواتوانیک   
havâtavânik

Fr.: aérodynamique   

The science that is concerned with the study of the → motion of → air and other gaseous → fluids and with the → forces acting on bodies moving through such fluids.

Aerodynamics, from Gk. aero-, → air, + → dynamics.

aerolite
  هواسنگ   
havâsang (#)

Fr.: aérolite   

A stony meteorite consisting of silicate minerals. This alternative name for a stony meteorite, is now largely obsolete.

Aerolite, from Gk. aero-, → air, + Gk. lithos "stone".

Havâsang from Persian havâ "air"; compare with Mid. Pers./Mod. Pers. vây "weather," from Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow". Cognate with Skt. va-, Gk. aemi "to blow" + sang, → stone.

aerology
  جوشناسی، جوشناخت   
javvšenâsi, javvšenâxt

Fr.: aérologie   

A subdivision of meteorology concerned with the total vertical extent of the atmosphere as opposed to the study of the atmosphere near Earth's surface.

Aerology from Gk. aero- "air" + Gk. logia "study of," from legein "to speak".

Javvšenâsi, from Ar. javv "air, atmosphere" + šenâsi "knowledge, knowing," from šenâxtan "to know," from Av./O.Pers. xšnâ "to learn, come to know, know," compare with Skt. jna "to know," Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge," L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know," PIE *gno- "to know."

aeronautics
  هوانوردی   
havânavardi (#)

Fr.: aéronautique   

The science and technology concerned with designing, constructing, and operating machines capable of flying in the atmosphere.

From aeronautic, from Fr. aéronautique, from aéro-, from Gk. aer, → air, + nautique "of ships," from L. nauticus, from Gk. nautikos, from naus "ship" (cognate with Mod.Pers. nâv "ship;" Av./O.Pers. *nāv-, O.Pers. nāviyā- "fleet;" Skt. nau-, nava- "ship, boat;" Gk. naus, neus, L. navis; PIE *nāu- "ship").

Havânavardi, from havâ, → air, + navardi, verbal noun of navardidan "to travel, walk, pass by and over."

aeronomy
  وای‌شناسی، فرازاجوشناخت   
vâyšenâsi, farâzâjavvšenâxt

Fr.: aéronomie   

The study of the upper atmosphere, especially of regions of ionized gas.

From Gk. aer- "weather" + nomos "arranging, regulating," related to nemein "to deal out."

Vâyšenâsi from Mid. Pers./Mod. Pers. vây "weather," Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow;" cf. Skt. va-; Gk. aemi "to blow;" Av. vāta- "wind;" Skt. vata-; L. ventus, Mod. Pers. bâd, → wind; PIE *we- "to blow".

aerosol
  هوالو   
havâlu

Fr.: aérosol   

A suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas.

Aerosol from aero "air" + sol(ution).

Havâlu from havâ "weather" + lu from → luyé, luyeš, → solution.

aesthetic
  زیباییک، زیبایی‌شناختی، زیبا   
zibâyik, zibâ-šenâxti, zibâ

Fr.: esthétique   

Relating to the philosophy of → aesthetics.

Adjective from → aesthetics.

aesthetics
  زیباییک، زیبایی‌شناسی   
zibâyik (#), zibâyi-šenâsi

Fr.: esthétique   

1) The branch of philosophy dealing with such notions as the beautiful, the ugly, the sublime, the comic, etc., as applicable to the fine arts, with a view to establishing the meaning and validity of critical judgments concerning works of art, and the principles underlying or justifying such judgments.
2) The study of the mind and emotions in relation to the sense of beauty (Dictionary.com).

From Ger. Ästhetisch or Fr. esthétique, both from Gk. aisthetikos "sensitive, perceptive," from aisthanesthai "to perceive, to feel."

Zibâyik, from zibâ "beautiful, elegant, adorned," → beauty, + -ik, → -ics.

affix
  وند   
vand (#)

Fr.: affixe   

A linguistic element added to a word or root to produce a derived or inflected form. General term for → infix, → prefix, → suffix, and → circumfix.

From L. affixus "fastened to," p.p. of affigere "fasten to, attach," from af-, variant of → ad- "to" + figere "fasten."

Vand, variant band "tie, band," present stem of Mod.-Mid./Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind.

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