Fr.: vent agéostrophique
Meteo.: The wind component deviating from the → geostrophic wind in the absence of the → geostrophic balance. In other words, ageostrophic wind is the difference between the true wind and the geostrophic wind.
1) bargolemidan; 2) bargolemidé; 3) bargolem
Fr.: 1) agglomérer; 2,3) aggloméré
1) (v.) To collect or gather into a cluster or mass.
From L. agglomeratus, p.p. of agglomerare "to wind or add onto a ball," from → ad- "to" + glomerare to "wind up in a ball," from glomus (genitive glomeris) "ball of yarn," globus "globe;" PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."
Bargolemidan, from suffix bar- "to, on, upon," + golem, from Lori, Laki golemâ, golama "curd, obtained from milk by coagulation, used to make cheese," Lori golem "stagnating water," Sangesari, Semnâni, Sorxe-yi, Lâsgardi golma, "boll, i.e. the rounded seed capsule of plants such as cotton," + -idan infinitive suffix.
1) A jumbled cluster or mass of varied parts.
Verbal noun of → agglomerate.
Named for Agilkia Island (
Fr.: 1) agiter, remuer; 2) émouvoir, troubler; 3) faire de l'agitation, exciter l'opinion publique
1) To move or force into violent, irregular action. To shake or move briskly.
From L. agitatus, p.p. of agitare "move to and fro," frequentative of agere "to drive," → act.
Žilidan, from Lori, Laki žil "shaking, moving," related to žir, → act.
The act or process of agitating; state of being agitated. → thermal agitation.
Verbal noun of → agitate.
1) A person who stirs up others in order to upset the status quo and further a
political, social, or other cause.
Fr.: consentir, convenir, être d'accord
1) To have the same views, emotions, etc.; harmonize in opinion or feeling
(often followed by with).
M.E. agre, agreen, from O.Fr. agreer "to receive with favor, take pleasure in," from phrase a gré "favorably, of good will," from L. → ad- "to" + gratum "pleasing," neuter of gratus "pleasing, agreeable," from PIE root *gwer- "to praise;" cf. Pers. gerâmi "dear, revered," from Av. gar- "to praise;" Skt. grnati "sings, praises," Lith. giriu "to praise, celebrate."
Infinitive from sâcan, → agreement.
1) The act of agreeing or of coming to a mutual arrangement.
Sâcan, from sâz-, saz, sac-, sâj-, Pers. sâz-, sâxtan "to build, prepare; to agree, be compatible; to adapt, adjust;" sazidan "to suit, fit, be worthy," sazâ "suitable, agreeing with, congruous, deserving of;" Baluchi sâc-/sâcit "to adjust, be suitable, agree;" Mid.Pers. sacitan/sazidan "to fit," sazešn "fitness," sazâg "fitting, worth;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach;" Proto-Ir. *sac- "to fit, be suitable; to prepare;" + suffix -an, → minus.
The occupation or science of cultivating the land, producing crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming.
M.E., from M.Fr., from L. agricultura, compound of agri cultura "cultivation of land," from agri, genitive of ager "a field" + cultura "cultivation," → culture.
Kešâvarzi "agriculture," from kešâvarz "farmer, cultivator," from kešt-varz. The first component kešt, variant kâšt, from kâštan, keštan, variants of kâridan "to cultivate, to plant;" Mid.Pers. kištan, kâridan "to sow, plant; to make furrows;" Av. kar- "to strew seed, cultivate," kāraiieiti "cultivates;" cf. Skt. kar- "to scatter, strew, pour out." The second component varz agent noun of varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" cf. Gk. ergon "work;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue;" PIE base *werg- "to do, to work."
The mixture of gases of which the earth's atmosphere is composed. It is chiefly made up of Nitrogen (about 78%) and Oxygen (about 20%).
Air, from O.Fr. air, L. aer, Gk. aer, related to Gk. aura "breath, vapor;" PIE *wer- "to raise, lift."
Havâ, from Ar., probably a loanword from Mid.Pers. vây "weather," Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow." Cf. Skt. va-, Gk. aemi- "to blow;" Av. vâta- "wind," Skt. vata-, L. ventus, Mod. Pers. bâd "wind." PIE *we- "to blow".
tondbâr-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni, ragbâ;r-e ~ ~
Fr.: gerbe (de rayons cosmiques)
Same as → cosmic-ray shower.
Fr.: luminescence nocturne
The faint ever-present glow in the → night time → sky caused by the → collision of → atoms and → molecules in Earth's → upper atmosphere with high energy → particles and → radiation, mainly from the → Sun. The airglow, also called nightglow, varies with time of night, → latitude, and → season.
havâtud, tude-ye havâ (#)
Fr.: masse d'air
A measure of the path length traversed by starlight through Earth's atmosphere before it reaches the detector; it is taken relative to the length at the zenith.
Fr.: tache de diffraction, ~ d'Airy
The bright disk-like image of a point source of light, such as a star, as seen in an optical system with a circular → aperture.
Named after Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Astronomer Royal, great administrator, who much improved the equipment at Greenwich Observatory. → disk.
Gerdé, → disk; Airy, see above.
Airy transit circle
parhun-e nimruzâni-ye Airy
Fr.: circle méridien d'Airy
A → transit circle that defines the position of the → Greenwich Meridian since the first observation was taken with it in 1851. Airy's transit circle lies at longitude 0°, by definition, and latitude 51° 28' 38'' N.
Named after Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Astronomer Royal, at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich from 1835 to 1881. Airy transformed the observatory, installing some of the most advanced astronomical apparatus of his day and expanded both staff numbers and their workload; → transit; → circle.
The fraction of the total light or other radiation which falls on a non-luminous body, such as a → planet, → satellite, or → asteroid, and which is reflected by it. Generally, the albedo is equal to the ratio between the light quantity reflected and the light quantity received. The albedo values range between 0.0 (0%), for a perfectly black area, which absorbs all incident light, and 1.0 (100%) for a perfect reflector. The planets or planetary satellites with dense atmospheres have greater albedos than those of transparent atmospheres or of no atmospheres. The albedo can vary from one surface point to another, so that a mean albedo is given for practical purposes. The natural surfaces reflect different light quantities in different directions and the albedo can be expressed in several ways, depending on the way in which the measurement was made: in one direction or, on the average, in all directions (M.S.: SDE). See also → Bond albedo, → geometric albedo.
Albedo, L. "whiteness," from albus "white," from PIE base *albho- "white". Compare with Gk. alphos "white leprosy," O.H.G. albig, O.E. elfet "swan, the white bird". The idea of whiteness derives from the fact that whiter bodies have a higher reflective power, while opaque objects are more absorptive.
Sepidâ, from sepid, →, white, + -â noun-forming prefix from certain adjectives.
Albireo (β Cygni)
Menqâr-e Dajâjé (#), Nok-e Mâkiyân
The second brightest star of the constellation → Cygnus, with a visual magnitude of 3.0. It is a double star of strikingly different colors, with components separated by 35''. The brighter component is a K3 giant while its partner is a main-sequence B9 star. About 380 → light-years away, the two rotate around each other with a period of about 75,000 years. The main component is itself a binary system.
Albireo may be a corruption of the L. phrase ab ireo "from the rainbow," as suggested by some writers on star names. It does not mean "the hen's beak".
Menqâr-e Dajâjé "hen's beak," from Ar. Minqâr
al-Dajâjah, from minqâr "beak" + dajâjah "hen".
An organic compound having a → hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom. Specifically the term is applied to ethyl alcohol or → ethanol (C2H5OH). Alcohol exists abundantly in the → interstellar medium in gaseous state also in the form of → methanol.
The discovery of alcohol is attributed to the Iranian physician and scientist
Mohammad son of Zakariyâ Râzi (864-930 AD, known in Europe as Razes or Rhazes).
He wrote in Ar., which was the scientific language of
that period. However, he himself did not use a specific term for this substance
as far as we know.
Alcohol was first used in medicine about 1250 by two Italian physicians Valis de Furo and
Thaddaeus of Florence. It was not yet called alcohol, but aqua ardens or
aqua vini. The name alcohol, of Arabic origin, was introduced by
the Swiss alchemist and physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) in the
sixteenth century. It is composed of two parts,
al-, a definite article (like "the"), plus a second component the origin of
which is not clear.
A broadly spread explanation for the second component is (kuHl)