An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 902
ageostrophic wind
  باد ِ نازمین‌چرخشی   
bâd-e nâ-zamincarxeši

Fr.: vent agéostrophique   

Meteo.: The wind component deviating from the → geostrophic wind in the absence of the → geostrophic balance. In other words, ageostrophic wind is the difference between the true wind and the geostrophic wind.

From negation prefix → a- + → geostrophic; → wind.

agglomerate
  ۱) برگلمیدن؛ ۲) برگلمیده؛ ۳) برگلم   
1) bargolemidan; 2) bargolemidé; 3) bargolem

Fr.: 1) agglomérer; 2,3) aggloméré   

1) (v.) To collect or gather into a cluster or mass.
2) (adj.) Gathered together into a cluster or mass.
3a) (n.) A mass of things clustered together.
3b) A rock composed of rounded or angular volcanic fragments (Dictionary.com).

From L. agglomeratus, p.p. of agglomerare "to wind or add onto a ball," from → ad- "to" + glomerare to "wind up in a ball," from glomus (genitive glomeris) "ball of yarn," globus "globe;" PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

Bargolemidan, from suffix bar- "to, on, upon," + golem, from Lori, Laki golemâ, golama "curd, obtained from milk by coagulation, used to make cheese," Lori golem "stagnating water," Sangesari, Semnâni, Sorxe-yi, Lâsgardi golma, "boll, i.e. the rounded seed capsule of plants such as cotton," + -idan infinitive suffix.

agglomeration
  برگلمش   
bargolemeš

Fr.: agglomération   

1) A jumbled cluster or mass of varied parts.
2) The act or process of agglomerating (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → agglomerate.

Agilkia
  اگیلکیا   
Agilkia

Fr.: Agilkia   

The site where → Rosetta's Philae lander is scheduled to touch down on Comet 67P/→ Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014.

Named for Agilkia Island (اجیلکیا), an island on the Nile River in the south of Egypt. A complex of Ancient Egyptian buildings, including the famous Temple of Isis, was moved to Agilkia from the island of Philae when the latter was flooded during the building of the Aswan dams last century.

agitate
  ژیلیدن   
žilidan

Fr.: 1) agiter, remuer; 2) émouvoir, troubler; 3) faire de l'agitation, exciter l'opinion publique   

1) To move or force into violent, irregular action. To shake or move briskly.
2) To disturb or excite emotionally; arouse; perturb.
3) To arouse or attempt to arouse public interest and support, as in some political or social cause or theory (Dictionary.com).

From L. agitatus, p.p. of agitare "move to and fro," frequentative of agere "to drive," → act.

Žilidan, from Lori, Laki žil "shaking, moving," related to žir, → act.

agitation
  ژیلش   
žileš

Fr.: agitation   

The act or process of agitating; state of being agitated. → thermal agitation.

Verbal noun of → agitate.

agitator
  ژیلشگر   
žilešgar

Fr.: agitateur   

1) A person who stirs up others in order to upset the status quo and further a political, social, or other cause.
2) A machine or device for agitating and mixing (Dictionary.com).

agitate; → -or; → turbulence.

agree
  ساچندن   
sâcandan

Fr.: consentir, convenir, être d'accord   

1) To have the same views, emotions, etc.; harmonize in opinion or feeling (often followed by with).
2) To give consent; assent (often followed by to).
3) To come to one opinion or mind; come to an arrangement or understanding; arrive at a settlement.
4) To be consistent; harmonize (usually followed by with).
5) To correspond; conform; resemble (Dictionary.com).

M.E. agre, agreen, from O.Fr. agreer "to receive with favor, take pleasure in," from phrase a gré "favorably, of good will," from L. → ad- "to" + gratum "pleasing," neuter of gratus "pleasing, agreeable," from PIE root *gwer- "to praise;" cf. Pers. gerâmi "dear, revered," from Av. gar- "to praise;" Skt. grnati "sings, praises," Lith. giriu "to praise, celebrate."

Infinitive from sâcan, → agreement.

agreement
  ساچن   
sâcan

Fr.: accord   

1) The act of agreeing or of coming to a mutual arrangement.
2) The state of being in accord (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun from → agree + → -ment.

Sâcan, from sâz-, saz, sac-, sâj-, Pers. sâz-, sâxtan "to build, prepare; to agree, be compatible; to adapt, adjust;" sazidan "to suit, fit, be worthy," sazâ "suitable, agreeing with, congruous, deserving of;" Baluchi sâc-/sâcit "to adjust, be suitable, agree;" Mid.Pers. sacitan/sazidan "to fit," sazešn "fitness," sazâg "fitting, worth;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach;" Proto-Ir. *sac- "to fit, be suitable; to prepare;" + suffix -an, → minus.

agriculture
  کشاورزی   
kešâvarzi (#)

Fr.: agriculture   

The occupation or science of cultivating the land, producing crops, and feeding, breeding, and raising livestock; farming.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. agricultura, compound of agri cultura "cultivation of land," from agri, genitive of ager "a field" + cultura "cultivation," → culture.

Kešâvarzi "agriculture," from kešâvarz "farmer, cultivator," from kešt-varz. The first component kešt, variant kâšt, from kâštan, keštan, variants of kâridan "to cultivate, to plant;" Mid.Pers. kištan, kâridan "to sow, plant; to make furrows;" Av. kar- "to strew seed, cultivate," kāraiieiti "cultivates;" cf. Skt. kar- "to scatter, strew, pour out." The second component varz agent noun of varzidan "to labor, exercise, practise;" cf. Gk. ergon "work;" Arm. gorc "work;" Lith. verziu "tie, fasten, squeeze," vargas "need, distress;" Goth. waurkjan; O.E. wyrcan "work," wrecan "to drive, hunt, pursue;" PIE base *werg- "to do, to work."

air
  هوا   
havâ (#)

Fr.: air   

The mixture of gases of which the earth's atmosphere is composed. It is chiefly made up of Nitrogen (about 78%) and Oxygen (about 20%).

Air, from O.Fr. air, L. aer, Gk. aer, related to Gk. aura "breath, vapor;" PIE *wer- "to raise, lift."

Havâ, from Ar., probably a loanword from Mid.Pers. vây "weather," Av. vayah-, vaya- "weather, atmosphere," from va- "to blow." Cf. Skt. va-, Gk. aemi- "to blow;" Av. vâta- "wind," Skt. vata-, L. ventus, Mod. Pers. bâd "wind." PIE *we- "to blow".

air shower
  تندبار ِ پرتوها‌ی ِ کیهانی، رگبار ِ ~ ~   
tondbâr-e partowhâ-ye keyhâni, ragbâ;r-e ~ ~

Fr.: gerbe (de rayons cosmiques)   

Same as → cosmic-ray shower.

air; → shower.

aircraft
  هواناو   
havânâv

Fr.: avion   

A machine capable of flying by means of → buoyancy or → aerodynamic forces, such as an airplane, helicopter, glider, or balloon.

air; → craft.

airglow
  هوافروز، شب‌فروغ   
havâforuz, šabforuq

Fr.: luminescence nocturne   

The faint ever-present glow in the → night time → sky caused by the → collision of → atoms and → molecules in Earth's → upper atmosphere with high energy → particles and → radiation, mainly from the → Sun. The airglow, also called nightglow, varies with time of night, → latitude, and → season.

air; → glow; → night.

airmass
  هواتود، توده‌ی ِ هوا   
havâtud, tude-ye havâ (#)

Fr.: masse d'air   

A measure of the path length traversed by starlight through Earth's atmosphere before it reaches the detector; it is taken relative to the length at the zenith.

air; → mass.

Airy disk
  گرده‌ی ِ ایری   
gerde-ye Eyri

Fr.: tache de diffraction, ~ d'Airy   

The bright disk-like image of a point source of light, such as a star, as seen in an optical system with a circular → aperture.

Named after Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Astronomer Royal, great administrator, who much improved the equipment at Greenwich Observatory. → disk.

Gerdé, → disk; Airy, see above.

Airy transit circle
  پرهون ِ نیمروزانی ِ ایری   
parhun-e nimruzâni-ye Airy

Fr.: circle méridien d'Airy   

A → transit circle that defines the position of the → Greenwich Meridian since the first observation was taken with it in 1851. Airy's transit circle lies at longitude 0°, by definition, and latitude 51° 28' 38'' N.

Named after Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), Astronomer Royal, at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich from 1835 to 1881. Airy transformed the observatory, installing some of the most advanced astronomical apparatus of his day and expanded both staff numbers and their workload; → transit; → circle.

albedo
  سپیدا   
sepidâ (#)

Fr.: albedo   

The fraction of the total light or other radiation which falls on a non-luminous body, such as a → planet, → satellite, or → asteroid, and which is reflected by it. Generally, the albedo is equal to the ratio between the light quantity reflected and the light quantity received. The albedo values range between 0.0 (0%), for a perfectly black area, which absorbs all incident light, and 1.0 (100%) for a perfect reflector. The planets or planetary satellites with dense atmospheres have greater albedos than those of transparent atmospheres or of no atmospheres. The albedo can vary from one surface point to another, so that a mean albedo is given for practical purposes. The natural surfaces reflect different light quantities in different directions and the albedo can be expressed in several ways, depending on the way in which the measurement was made: in one direction or, on the average, in all directions (M.S.: SDE). See also → Bond albedo, → geometric albedo.

Albedo, L. "whiteness," from albus "white," from PIE base *albho- "white". Compare with Gk. alphos "white leprosy," O.H.G. albig, O.E. elfet "swan, the white bird". The idea of whiteness derives from the fact that whiter bodies have a higher reflective power, while opaque objects are more absorptive.

Sepidâ, from sepid, →, white, + noun-forming prefix from certain adjectives.

Albireo (β Cygni)
  منقار ِ دجاجه، نوک ِ ماکیان   
Menqâr-e Dajâjé (#), Nok-e Mâkiyân

Fr.: Albiero   

The second brightest star of the constellation → Cygnus, with a visual magnitude of 3.0. It is a double star of strikingly different colors, with components separated by 35''. The brighter component is a K3 giant while its partner is a main-sequence B9 star. About 380 → light-years away, the two rotate around each other with a period of about 75,000 years. The main component is itself a binary system.

Albireo may be a corruption of the L. phrase ab ireo "from the rainbow," as suggested by some writers on star names. It does not mean "the hen's beak".

Menqâr-e Dajâjé "hen's beak," from Ar. Minqâr al-Dajâjah, from minqâr "beak" + dajâjah "hen".
Nok-e Mâkiyân "beak of the hen," from Mod.Pers. nok "beak" + mâkiyân "hen".

alcohol
  الکل   
alkol (#)

Fr.: alcool   

An organic compound having a → hydroxyl (-OH) group attached to a carbon atom. Specifically the term is applied to ethyl alcohol or → ethanol (C2H5OH). Alcohol exists abundantly in the → interstellar medium in gaseous state also in the form of → methanol.

The discovery of alcohol is attributed to the Iranian physician and scientist Mohammad son of Zakariyâ Râzi (864-930 AD, known in Europe as Razes or Rhazes). He wrote in Ar., which was the scientific language of that period. However, he himself did not use a specific term for this substance as far as we know. Alcohol was first used in medicine about 1250 by two Italian physicians Valis de Furo and Thaddaeus of Florence. It was not yet called alcohol, but aqua ardens or aqua vini. The name alcohol, of Arabic origin, was introduced by the Swiss alchemist and physician Paracelsus (1493-1541) in the sixteenth century. It is composed of two parts, al-, a definite article (like "the"), plus a second component the origin of which is not clear. A broadly spread explanation for the second component is (kuHl) الکحل, originally the name of antimony reduced to a fine powder used especially to darken eyelids. The powder is prepared by sublimation of the natural mineral antimony sulfide (Sb2S3). According to this opinion, the meaning of alkuhl would have been first extended by European alchemists to distilled substances in general, and then narrowed to ethanol. Paracelsus indeed defines the terms alcohol and alcool as "the most subtle part of anything." It is in that sense that he calls the substance alcool vini, that is, the most subtle part of wine. Moreover, it is always as "alcool vini" or "alcohol vini" that he uses this term, never "alcohol" alone. Later chemists dropped the "vini" and let the alcohol stand alone for the name (see M. M. Pattison Muir, Story of Alchemy and the Beginning of Chemistry, 1902, p. 192). We note that the word used in current Ar. for this substance is الکحول (alkuHul) and not الکحل (alkuHl). That word may be the Ar. rendering of the European term (probably from the older Fr. form alcohol) loaned in modern times. Alternatively, the word alcohol would originate from another Ar. word, al-ghaul (الغول), meaning "an oppression of the mind, a loss of the senses (from drunkenness), a head-ache" also "spirit, demon." This derivation would be consistent with the use of "spirit" or "spirit of wine" as synonymous of "alcohol" in most Western languages. If this second etymology is correct, the popular etymology and the spelling "alcohol" would not be due to generalization of the meaning of al-kuhl, but rather to Western alchemists and authors confusing the two words al-kuhl and al-ghaul, because of the lack of the "gh" sound in European languages. The problem with this etymology is that no specific word is found in classical Ar. for designating "alcohol."

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