<< < -ab aba abs abs abs acc acc act act ada adi adv afo agi Ale alg Alk Aln alr alt amb ana And ang ani ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg Aro asc ass ast ast asy atm att aur ave axi > >>
algebra jabr (#) Fr.: Algèbre The branch of mathematics which deals with the properties and relations of numbers using symbols (usually letters of the alphabet) to represent numbers or members of a specified set; the generalization and extension of arithmetic. Algebra, from M.L., from Ar. al jabr "reunion of broken bones," the first known use in the title of a book by the Persian mathematician and astronomer Abu Ja'far Mohammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c780-c850), who worked in Baghdad under the patronage of Caliph Al-Mamun. The full title of the tratise was Hisab al-Jabr w'al-Muqabala "Arithmetic of Completion and Balancing." → algorithm. Jabr, from Ar. al jabr, as above. |
algebraic jabri (#) Fr.: algébrique Relating to, involving, or according to the laws of algebra. |
algebraic equation hamugeš-e jabri Fr.: équation algébrique An equation in the form of P = 0, where P is a → polynomial having a finite number of terms. |
algebraic function karyâ-ye jabri Fr.: fonction algébrique A function expressed in terms of → polynomials and/or roots of polynomials. In other words, any function y = f(x) which satisfies an equation of the form P_{0}(x)y^{n} + P_{1}(x)y^{n - 1} + ... + P_{n}(x) = 0, where P_{0}(x), P_{1}(x), ..., P_{n}(x) are polynomials in x. |
algebraic number adad-e jabri (#) Fr.: nombre algébrique A number, → real or → complex, that is a → root of a → non-zero polynomial equation whose → coefficients are all → rational. For example, the root x of the polynomial x^{2} - 2x + 1 = 0 is an algebraic number, because the polynomial is non-zero and the coefficients are rational numbers. The imaginary number i is algebraic, because it is the solution to x^{2} + 1 = 0. |
Algenib (γ Pegasi) Aljanb (#) Fr.: Algenib A star which lies at the lower left-hand corner of → Pegasus. Its apparent magnitude varies between +2.80 and +2.86 over a period of 3.6 hours; → spectral type B2 IV. Algenib, from Ar. Aljanb al-Faras "the horse's flank," from al "the" + janb "flank" + faras "horse". |
Algieba (γ Leo) Jebhé (#) Fr.: Algieba A binary system in Leo the brighter component of which (magnitude 2.6) is a giant K star and the partner a giant G (magnitude 3.8). The angular separation of just over 4'' means that the two stars are at least 170 AU apart, for a distance of 126 → light-years, and have an orbital period of over 500 years. Algieba, from Ar. Al-Jabhah "the forehead" (of the Lion). |
Algol (β Persei) Alqul, Ra's-ol-Qul (#) Fr.: Algol A variable star in the constellation → Perseus, which was the first eclipsing binary discovered. Its brightness varies between 2.2 and 3.5 magnitudes. Lying at a distance of about 82 → light-years, it consists of at least three components. The brightest component (A) is of spectral type B8 V, and the second one (B) a K type giant. The components A and B turn around each other with a period of about 68.8 hours. Algol, from Ar. Ra's al-ghul "the ghoul's head". |
Algol-type variables vartandegân-e Alqulguné Fr.: variables de type Algol The same as eclipsing binary stars, the prototype of which is Algol. |
algorithm xârazmik (#) Fr.: algorithme A step-by-step problem-solving procedure, especially an established, recursive computational procedure for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. From M.L. algorismus, a mangled transliteration of al-Khwarizmi, "native of Khwarazm," the surname of the Persian mathematician and astronomer Abu Ja'far Mohammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (c780-c850). Xârazmik, from Xârazmi, the name of the Persian mathematician, + Persian affix → -ik, → -ics. |
alias anyâ Fr.: alias General:An assumed name; otherwise called. From L. alius "(an)other". Compare with Skt. anya "other, different," Av. anya-, O.Pers. aniya- "the one or the other," Arm. ail, Gk. allos "another," Goth. aljis "other". PIE *al- "beyond". Anyâ from Mid.Pers. anya "other, otherwise," from Av. anya "other". This term is used as eyni in the Modern Persian Aftari dialect: eyni sâl "other year," eyni vacé "other child". |
aliasing anyâyi Fr.: réplication The condition that two or more functions are indistinguishable because they have the same values at a finite set of points. Such functions are said to be aliases of each others. The aliasing problem often occurs in undersampled discrete Fourier transform. Aliasing, from → alias + → -ing. Anyâyi, from anyâ, → alias, + noun forming suffix -i. |
alidade ezâdé (#) Fr.: alidade 1) In a → planispheric astrolabe,
the small revolving rod fixed to the center of
the goniometric scale plotted on the → front
or → back of the instrument.
Unlike the → rule,
the alidade has little vanes with holes or slots at each
end, called → pinnules, which are used as sights,
through which the observer can aim at a particular object. An index, often consisting of
the edge of the alidade itself, shows on the goniometric scales the
angle between the line of sight of the targeted object and a
predetermined axis, i.e. the vertical of the observation locality
(online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum). M.E. allidatha, alhidade, from L. alhidada, from Ar.
al-'izâda
( Ezâdé, from Ar. al-'izâda. |
alien bigâné (#), bigân Fr.: 1) espèce envahissante; 2) extraterrestre 1) A species not native to its environment; an introduced species. M.E., from O.Fr. alien "strange, foreign; a stranger, foreigner," from L. alienus "of or belonging to another, foreign, alien, strange," also, as a noun, "a stranger, foreigner," adjectival form of alius "(an)other," → alias; meaning "not of the Earth" first recorded 1920. Bigâné "alien, foreigner," from Mid.Pers. bêgânag, from bêg-, bê- "out, outside, apart" (cf. Sogd. bêk "out, outside, apart, except," bêk-dênê "heretic," literally "out of religion") + suffix -ânag. |
align âxatidan Fr.: aligner To arrange in a line or so as to be parallel; to adjust to produce a proper relationship or orientation. M.Fr. aligner, from O.Fr. aligner, from à "to" + ligner "to line," from L. lineare, from linea "linen thread, string, line;" → line. Âxatidan, from â- intesive and nuance prefix + xat, → line, + infinitive suffix -idan. |
align a telescope âxatidan-e durbin, ~ teleskop Fr.: aligner un télescope Setting the axis of a telescope parallel to prime directions. In equatorial mounting, they are made parallel with the Earth's axis of rotation and the equator respectively. → collimation. |
aligned âxatidé Fr.: aligné Arranged in a → straight line. Past participle of → align. |
aligned magnetic field meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye âxatidé Fr.: champ magnétique aligné A magnetic field whose lines of force are oriented along a particular direction or by a particular manner (axially, vertically; randomly, properly, etc.) → aligned; → magnetic field. |
alignment âxateš Fr.: alignement The fact of being in line or bringing into line. |
Alioth (ε Ursae Majoris) Jown (#) Fr.: Alioth The brightest of the seven stars that make up the → Big Dipper → asterism. Alioth shines at magnitude +1.77 from a distance of about 80 → light-years. It is a white star of → spectral type A0pCr. The spectrum of the star is characterized by abnormally strong lines of → chromium and → europium. Alioth, from Aliot, from Ar. Alyat ( Jown, from Ar. Jawn "black camel or horse". |
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