An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 902

Fr.: antihydrogène   

An atom made from an → antiproton and a → positron. In 2010 a research collaboration at CERN combined decelerated antiprotons with positrons to produce antihydrogen atoms. They managed 38 times to confine single antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap for more than 170 milliseconds (Andersen et al. 2010, Nature, 17 Nov.).

anti- + → hydrogen.

Antikythera mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ آنتیکوترا   
sâzokâr-e Antikythera

Fr.: machine d'Anticythère   

A unique Greek geared device, constructed around the end of the second century BC to display the movement of the Sun, the Moon, and possibly the planets around the Earth, and predict the dates of future eclipses. It measures about 32 by 16 by 10 cm and contains at least 30 interlocking gear-wheels, all of them having triangular teeth, from 15 to 223 in number. This device is one of the most stunning artefacts remained from antiquity, revealing an unexpected degree of technical creativity for the period. Nothing close to its technological sophistication appears again for well over a millennium, when astronomical clocks appear in the medieval Europe. It was discovered in 1901 in a sunken ship just off the coast of Antikythera, an island between Crete and the Greek mainland. Its significance and complexity were not understood until decades later. After lots of study involving several research fields, a copy of the device has recently been constructed. See, e.g., Freeth et al. 2006, Nature 444, 587.

Named after the Greek island in the Ionia Sea from which the fragments of the device were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers, who found a sunken Roman ship. Several pieces of evidence indicate that the Roman ship carrying the device wrecked sometime shortly after 85 BC. The ship also contained an enormous booty of bronzes, glassware, jewelry and pottery; → mechanism.

pâdmâddé (#)

Fr.: antimatière   

Matter composed entirely of → antiparticles. See also → antihydrogen.

Antimatter from Gk. → anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → matter.

Pâdmâddé from pâd-, → anti-, + mâddé, → matter.

ântimuân (#)

Fr.: antimoine   

A silver white metallic element of a flaky nature, extremely brittle, occurring in nature free or combined, symbol Sb. → Atomic number 51; → atomic weight 121.75; → meting point 630.74°C; → boiling point 1,750°C; → specific gravity (metallic form) 6.69 at 20°C. Antimony is recognized in compounds from antiquity, and as a metal since the 17th century. The minerals stibnite (Sb2S3) and stibine (SbH3) are two of a multitude of mineral species which were known in the ancient world. Antimony is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. It greatly increases the hardness of metals with which it makes → alloys. Its various unstable isotopes have a half-life of 16 min (Sb120) to 2.7 years (Sb125).

From M.E. antimonie, from M.L. antimonium, an alchemist's term, of obscure origin, maybe a Latinization of Gk. stimmi or stibi, probably ultimately from Egyptian stm "cosmetic powder" used to paint the eyelids. The chemical symbol, Sb, comes from the original name, stibium, which is derived from Gk. stibi for "mark," since it was used for blackening eyebrows and eyelashes. The name was changed from stibium to antimonium to antimony.

Ântimuân, loan from Fr. antimoine.


Fr.: antineutrino   

The → antiparticle counterpart of the → neutrino.

anti-; → neutrino.


Fr.: antineutron   

The → antiparticle of the → neutron. It has the same mass, → spin, and → electric charge (zero) as the neutron but has opposite → baryon number (+1 for neutron, -1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of → antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of → quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.

anti-; → neutron.

  پاد-گره، شکم   
pâdgereh (#), šekam (#)

Fr.: anti-nœud   

The position of maximum → amplitude midway between two adjacent → nodes in a → standing wave.

anti-; → node.


Fr.: Antiope   

A unique → binary asteroid (90) which has two similar-sized components. The components, 91 and 86 km in diameter respectively, are separated by 171 km, and circle each other every 16.5 hours. Belonging to the main → asteroid belt, Antiope was discovered in 1866 by the German Robert Luther. Its binarity was discovered in 2000 by W. Merline and collaborators.

Antiope, from Gk. mythology, but it is not clear whether Antiope the Amazon or Antiope the mother of Amphion and Zethus.


Fr.: antiparallèle   

A → pair of → vectors whose directions are parallel but having the opposite sense.

anti-; → parallel.


Fr.: antiparticule   

Any → elementary particle with a → charge of opposite sign to the same particle in normal matter.

anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → particle.


Fr.: antipodal   

1) Of or relating to the → antipodes.
2) Describing two points when a line drawn from one to the other does not pass through the geometric centre of the Earth.

antipode; → -al.


Fr.: antipode   

1) The exact or direct opposite.
2) Either or both of two points, places, or regions that are situated diametrically opposite to one another on the Earth's surface (

M.E., from L., from Gk. antipod-, antipous, literally "with feet opposite," from → anti- "against," + pod-, pous, → foot.

Pâdpây, from pâd-, → anti-, + pây, → foot.


Fr.: antiproton   

The antiparticle of a proton, identical in mass and spin but of opposite (negative) charge.

From → anti- + → proton.


Fr.: antiquark   

The → antiparticle of a → quark.

anti-; → quark.

antisolar point
  نقطه‌ی ِ پادخورشیدی   
noqte-ye pâdxoršidi

Fr.: direction antisolaire   

Meteo.: The point on the → celestial sphere that lies directly opposite the Sun from the → observer, observer, that is, on the line from the Sun through the observer. The antisolar point is the center of the rainbow, and can be easily found on a sunny day: it it located at the shadow of one's head; it is 180° away from the Sun. If the Sun is in the sky, the antisolar point is below the horizon. If the Sun has set, the antisolar point is above the horizon.

anti-; → solar; → point.


Fr.: contre-queue   

A small tail-like structure on a comet that, unlike most comet tails, seems to point toward the Sun. This rare event is an optical illusion due to larger dust particles left along the comet's orbit. And typically occurs when the Earth crosses the plane of the comet's orbit. It seen when the observer is in the plane of the cometary orbit.

Antitail, from → anti- "opposite, opposing, against" + → tail.

Pâddom, from pâd-, → anti-, + dom "tail."


Fr.: antithèse   

Logical or verbal opposition.
Philo. The second of two opposed propositions in Hegelian dialectic, the first of which is the → thesis; → synthesis.

anti-; → thesis.


Fr.: antithétique   

1) Of the nature of or involving → antithesis.
2) Directly opposed or contrasted; opposite (

antithesis; → -ic.

Tolombé (#)

Fr.: Machine pneumatique   

The Air Pump. A faint constellation in the southern hemisphere, at about alpha 10h, delta -35 deg. Abbreviation: Ant; genitive form: Antliae.

L. antlia "pump," from Gk. antlia "ship's hold, bilge water," from antlos.

Tolombé "pump," from Turkish tulumba "pump," from It. tromba.

Antoine equation
  هموگش ِ آنتوان   
hamugeš-e Antoine

Fr.: équation d'Antoine   

A mathematical expression, derived from the → Clausius-Clapeyron equation, of the relation between the vapor pressure and the temperature of pure substances. It shows that the logarithm of vapor pressure is linearly dependent on the reciprocal of → absolute temperature.

Named after Louis Charles Antoine (1825-?), a French marine engineer, who derived the equation; → equation.

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