Fr.: précession absidiale
apsides, line of
Fr.: ligne des apsides
The line connecting the two apsides, i.e. the major axis of an elliptical orbit. → apsis.
apsis (pl. apsides)
L. apsis "arch, vault," from Gk. hapsis "loop, arch," from haptein "fasten together".
Mod.Pers. habâk "top of the head; the summit of a mountain".
Exactly suitable; appropriate; suited to a purpose.
M.E., from L. aptus "fitted, suitable, fastened," from p.p. of *apere "to fasten;" akin to Hittite hap- "to attach;" PIE *ap- "to grasp, take, reach".
Niyâw "apt, suitable, appropriate," from Mid.Pers.
Morq-e behešti (#)
Fr.: Oiseau de paradis
The Bird of Paradise. A constellation in the southern hemisphere, at
L. apus "a kind of swallow," from Gk. apous "without feet, sand martin," from → a- "without" + pous "foot".
Morq-e behešti "bird of paradise," from morq "bird" + behešt "paradise".
Several meteor showers that have their radiants in the constellation → Aquarius. The main showers are: 1) Eta Aquarids, occurs early in May and is apparently associated with Halley's comet, 2) Delta Aquarids occurs in early August.
Aquarids, from → Aquarius constellation + → -ids suffix denoting "descendant of, belonging to the family of."
Âbkašiyân, from Âbkaš + -iyân, → -ids.
Âbkeš, Rizande-ye âb (#)
The Water Bearer. An extended southern constellation composed of rather faint stars (R.A. about 23h, Dec. about -15 deg). One of the signs of the → Zodiac, it is surrounded by → Pegasus, → Equuleus, and → Delphinus to the north, → Aquila to the west, → Pisces Austrinus and → Sculptor to the south, and → Cetus to the east. Abbreviation: Aqr, genitive from: Aquarii.
Aquarius, L. "water carrier," literally "of the water," translation of Gk. Hydrokhoos "the water-pourer," old Gk. name of this constellation.
Âbkeš "water carrier or drawer," from âb "water" (Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river;" O.Prus. ape "stream;" Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook") + keš "drawer," contraction of kešandé, from kešidan/kašidan "to carry, draw, extract, trail, drag" (Mid.Pers. kešidan "to draw, pull;" Av. karš- "to draw; to plough," karša- "furrow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be busy, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow").
The Eagle. A constellation on the celestial equator representing an eagle (R.A. about 19h30, Dec. about +5 deg). It is marked by the bright star → Altair (α Aquilae). Abbreviation: Aql, genitive form: Aquilae.
L. aquila "black eagle," fem. of aquilus "dark colored" (bird).
Šâhin "eagle," Av. saêna- "eagle," Skt. śyená- "eagle, falcon, hawk".
Fr.: Rift de l'Aigle
A long, dark structure located close to the → Galactic plane and occupying an area between longitudes l ~15° and ~35° and latitudes b ± 10° in the constellations Aquila, Serpens, and eastern Ophiuchus. The Aquila Rift is a complex of dust and → molecular clouds making part of → Gould's Belt in the → Orion Arm. The mass of the molecular gas, derived from → carbon monoxide (CO) observations (Dame et al. 2001, ApJ 547, 792), is in the range ~ 1-3 x 105 → solar masses. A distance of ~260 pc has been estimated for the Aquila Rift, but it is uncertain. Recent Herschel observations have revealed a filamentary structure in the Aquila Rift and the presence of a population of → pre-stellar cores as well as → young stellar objects (André et al. 2010, A&A 518, L102; Bontemps et al. 2010, A&A 518, L85; Könyves et al. 2010, A&A 518, L106).
L. ara "fire altar," from PIE as- "to burn".
Âtašdân "a hearth, a fire-place; a movable coal grate," from âtaš "fire" (from Mid.Pers. âtaxš, âzar-, O.Pers. *âtar-, Av. âtar-, from Indo-Iranian *âtar-, compare with L. âter (feminine âtra) "black" (from "blackened by fire"); PIE *âter) + -dân suffix denoting recipient.
axtaršenâsi-ye Arabi (#)
Fr.: astronomie arabe
The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. Arab/Arabic is not meant as an ethnic but rather a linguistic term. In fact a large number of Non-Arab scholars, mainly Persians, Mongols, and Spanish people, wrote their works in Arabic. Even so, many astronomical works were also produced in the other languages of this civilization, especially Persian and in the later centuries Turkish. For example, the main → zijs were originally written in Persian, a notable example being the Zij of Ulugh Beg (c. A.D. 1394-1449), a landmark in precise observations before the Renaissance. Therefore, the term Arabic astronomy is misleading. It also creates a disparity with respect to Western scholars who wrote in Latin. The term "Latin astronomy" is meaningless and as far as these scholars are concerned, the Latin adjective is not specified. For example, the expressions like "the Latin astronomer Copernicus," "the Latin physicist Newton," or "the Latin philosopher Leibniz" are not used. See also → Islamic astronomy.
M.E. arabik, from O.Fr. arabique, from L. Arabicus; → astronomy.
Fr.: point d'Arago
Named for François Arago (1786-1853), French physicist; → point
1) Subject to individual will or judgment without restriction; contingent
solely upon one's discretion.
M.E., from O.Fr. arbitraire or directly from L. arbitrarius "depending on the will, uncertain," from → ad- "to" + baetere "to come, go."
1) General: Something shaped like a → curve
or → arch.
M.E. ark, from M.Fr. arc "bow," from L. arcus "bow, arch" (cf. Goth. arhwazna "arrow," O.E. earh), PIE *arqu- "bowed, curved."
Kamân "arc, bow" from Mid.Pers. kamân, related to xam "curve," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent," Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint," L. campus "a field," Lith. kampus "corner," PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."
kamân-daqiqé, daqiqe-ye kamâni
Fr.: minute de degré
A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.
arc of light
Fr.: arc de lumière
arc of separation
Fr.: arc de séparation
arc of vision
Fr.: arc de vision
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni
Fr.: seconde de degré
A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.
Fr.: spectre d'étincelle
The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.