An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 888
argument of periapsis
  آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   
âruzmân-e pirâhabâk

Fr.: argument du périastre   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perigee
  آروزمان ِ پیرازم   
âruzmân-e pirâzam

Fr.: argument du périgée   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perihelion
  آروزمان ِ پیراهور   
âruzmân-e pirâhur

Fr.: argument du périhélie   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perihelion.

argumentation
  آروزش   
âruzeš

Fr.: argumentation   

The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.

Noun from → argument.

argumentative
  آروزمانگین   
âruzmângin

Fr.: raisonneur   

1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute.
2) Of or characterized by argument; controversial.

argue; → -ive

arid
  کماب   
kamâb (#)

Fr.: aride   

Lacking sufficient water or rainfall.

L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow".

Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water".

aridity
  کمابی   
kamâbi (#)

Fr.: aridité   

A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.

Aridity, noun from → arid.

Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid.

Ariel (Uranus I)
  آریل   
Ariel (#)

Fr.: Ariel   

A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days.

Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Aries
  بره   
Barré (#)

Fr.: Bélier   

The Ram. A constellation of the → Zodiac, representing a ram (R.A. = 2h 30m, Dec. = +13 deg). Its brightest star is → Hamal (α Arietis). Abbreviation: Ari; genitive form: Arietis.

L. aries "ram," perhaps akin to Gk. eriphos "a kid, a young goat," O.Ir. heirp "she-goat;" cf. Lith. erytis, O.C.S. jarici, Arm. oroj "lamb."

Barré "ram, sheep; Aries" from Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb, ram; Aries," compare with Av. varənâ- "wool," Skt. urana, urabhra "wool-beared = ram," from urna "wool," L. vervex "a wether, sheep".

Aristarchus' inequality
  ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   
nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus

Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   

Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.

Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality.

Aristotelian form
  دیسه‌ی ِ ارسطویی   
dise-ye Arastuyi

Fr.: forme aristotelienne   

Any of the four main → proposition forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism:
The A form (universal affirmative): All P's are Q's,
The E form (universal negative): No P's are Q's,
The I form (particular affirmative): Some P's are Q's, and
The O form (particular negative) Some P's are not Q's.

Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC); → form.

arithmetic
  حساب   
hesâb (#)

Fr.: arithmétique   

A branch of mathematics that deals usually with integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See also → compute, → computation, → count, → calculate, → calculus, → mathematics, → statistics.

O.Fr. arsmetique, from M.L. arithmetica, from Gk. arithmetike (tekhne) "(art, skill) of numbers," from arithmos "number."

Hesâb, from Ar. hisab.

arithmetic mean
  میانگین ِ حسابی   
miyângin hesâbi (#)

Fr.: moyenne arithmétique   

Of n numbers a1, a2, ..., an, the quantity defined as: (a1 + a2 + ... + an)/n.

arithmetic; → mean.

arithmetic progression
  فرایازی ِ حسابی   
farâyâzi-yz hesâbi (#)

Fr.: progression arithmétique   

A → sequence of n numbers or quantities such that the difference between any two successive terms is a constant. In particular, if a is the first term, the nth term is a + (n - 1)d, where d is the constant. Also called → arithmetic sequence.

arithmetic; → progression.

arithmetic sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ حسابی   
peyâye-ye hesâbi

Fr.: suite arithmétique   

arithmetic progression.

arithmetic; → sequence.

arm
  بازو   
bâzu (#)

Fr.: bras   

A slender part of a structure projecting from a main part, such as a → spiral arm. → Orion Arm; → Perseus Arm; → Scutum-Crux Arm.

From O.E. earm "arm," from P.Gmc. *armaz (cf. M.Du., Ger. Arm, O.N. armr, O.Fris. erm), from PIE base *ar- "to fit, join;" cf. Mod.Pers. arm "arm, from the elbow to the shoulder;" Av. arma-, arəmo- "arm;" Skt. irma- "arm;" Gk. arthron "a joint;" L. armus "shoulder."

Bâzu "arm," from Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" Mod.Pers. bâhu "stick, staff; arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm").

armillary sphere
  ذات‌الحلق   
zâtolhelaq (#)

Fr.: sphère armillaire   

An ancient instrument, used since ancient times until the Middle ages and later, to determine positions of celestial bodies. It consisted of an assemblage of rings, all circles of the same sphere, designed to represent the positions of the important circles of the celestial sphere.

L. armillarius, from armilla "arm ring, bracelet," from armus "arm" + → sphere.

Zâtolhelaq from Ar. "multi-ringed," from zât "holder, keeper" + helaq "rings," from halqah "ring."

Arnett's rule
  رزن ِ ارنت   
razan-e Arnett

Fr.: règle d'Arnett   

The → peak luminosity of a → Type Ia supernova is proportional to the rate of → radioactive decay and hence directly proportional to the mass of 56Ni.

Arnett, W. D. 1982, ApJ, 253, 785; → rule.

aromatic
  اروماتیک   
aromatik

Fr.: aromatique   

Chemistry: Of, relating to, or containing the six-carbon ring typical of the benzene (C6H6) series and related organic groups.

M.E. aromatyk, from M.Fr. aromatique, from L. aromaticus, from Gk. aromatikos, from aroma "seasoning, sweet spice," of unknown origin.

aromatic compound
  چندساخت ِ اروماتیک   
candsâxt-e aromâtik

Fr.: composé aromatique   

An organic compound which contains benzene rings in its structure. The simplest is therefore benzene (C6H6). Aromatic compounds have a planar ring of atoms linked by alternate single and double bounds.

aromatic; → compound.

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