An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -ab aba abs abs abs acc acc act act ada adi adv afo agi Ale alg Alk Aln alr alt amb ana And ang ani ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast asy atm ato aur aut axi > >>

Number of Results: 892
lerd (#)

Fr.: tartre   

A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.

M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."

Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ).

ârgon (#)

Fr.: argon   

A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.

Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air.

âruzidan (#)

Fr.: argumenter   

To put forth reasons for or against.


âruzmân (#)

Fr.: argument   

1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate; a process of reasoning; series of reasons.
2a) Math.: The → independent variable of a → function.
2b) Math.: The → angle of a → complex number measured from the positive horizontal axis.
3) Astro.: → argument of periapsis, → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.
4a) Logic: A sequence of → propositions with one or more → premises and a → conclusion. Arguments are usually divided into two kinds, → deductive and → inductive.
4b) Logic: A → propositional symbol (→ variable or → constant) taken by a → predicate in an → atomic wff.

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."

Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân.

argument of periapsis
  آروزمان ِ پیراهباک   
âruzmân-e pirâhabâk

Fr.: argument du périastre   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perigee
  آروزمان ِ پیرازم   
âruzmân-e pirâzam

Fr.: argument du périgée   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Earth and its perigee, measured from the Earth. See also: → argument of perihelion, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perigee.

argument of perihelion
  آروزمان ِ پیراهور   
âruzmân-e pirâhur

Fr.: argument du périhélie   

The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.

argument; → perihelion.


Fr.: argumentation   

The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.

Noun from → argument.


Fr.: raisonneur   

1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute.
2) Of or characterized by argument; controversial.

argue; → -ive

kamâb (#)

Fr.: aride   

Lacking sufficient water or rainfall.

L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow".

Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water".

kamâbi (#)

Fr.: aridité   

A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.

Aridity, noun from → arid.

Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid.

Ariel (Uranus I)
Ariel (#)

Fr.: Ariel   

A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days.

Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Barré (#)

Fr.: Bélier   

The Ram. A constellation of the → Zodiac, representing a ram (R.A. = 2h 30m, Dec. = +13 deg). Its brightest star is → Hamal (α Arietis). Abbreviation: Ari; genitive form: Arietis.

L. aries "ram," perhaps akin to Gk. eriphos "a kid, a young goat," O.Ir. heirp "she-goat;" cf. Lith. erytis, O.C.S. jarici, Arm. oroj "lamb."

Barré "ram, sheep; Aries" from Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb, ram; Aries," compare with Av. varənâ- "wool," Skt. urana, urabhra "wool-beared = ram," from urna "wool," L. vervex "a wether, sheep".

Aristarchus' inequality
  ناهموگی ِ اریستارخوس   
nâhamugi-ye Aristarchus

Fr.: inégalité d'Aristarque   

Put in modern notation, if α and β are acute angles and if β <α, then sin α / sin β <α / β < tan α / tan β. Aristarchus probably used this inequality to show that the Sun is between 18 and 20 times as far from the Earth as the Moon is.

Aristarchus of Samos (c.310-c.230 BC); → inequality.

Aristotelian form
  دیسه‌ی ِ ارسطویی   
dise-ye Arastuyi

Fr.: forme aristotelienne   

Any of the four main → proposition forms treated in Aristotle's → syllogism:
The A form (universal affirmative): All P's are Q's,
The E form (universal negative): No P's are Q's,
The I form (particular affirmative): Some P's are Q's, and
The O form (particular negative) Some P's are not Q's.

Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC); → form.

hesâb (#)

Fr.: arithmétique   

A branch of mathematics that deals usually with integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. See also → compute, → computation, → count, → calculate, → calculus, → mathematics, → statistics.

O.Fr. arsmetique, from M.L. arithmetica, from Gk. arithmetike (tekhne) "(art, skill) of numbers," from arithmos "number."

Hesâb, from Ar. hisab.

arithmetic mean
  میانگین ِ حسابی   
miyângin hesâbi (#)

Fr.: moyenne arithmétique   

Of n numbers a1, a2, ..., an, the quantity defined as: (a1 + a2 + ... + an)/n.

arithmetic; → mean.

arithmetic progression
  فرایازی ِ حسابی   
farâyâzi-yz hesâbi (#)

Fr.: progression arithmétique   

A → sequence of n numbers or quantities such that the difference between any two successive terms is a constant. In particular, if a is the first term, the nth term is a + (n - 1)d, where d is the constant. Also called → arithmetic sequence.

arithmetic; → progression.

arithmetic sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ حسابی   
peyâye-ye hesâbi

Fr.: suite arithmétique   

arithmetic progression.

arithmetic; → sequence.

bâzu (#)

Fr.: bras   

A slender part of a structure projecting from a main part, such as a → spiral arm. → Orion Arm; → Perseus Arm; → Scutum-Crux Arm.

From O.E. earm "arm," from P.Gmc. *armaz (cf. M.Du., Ger. Arm, O.N. armr, O.Fris. erm), from PIE base *ar- "to fit, join;" cf. Mod.Pers. arm "arm, from the elbow to the shoulder;" Av. arma-, arəmo- "arm;" Skt. irma- "arm;" Gk. arthron "a joint;" L. armus "shoulder."

Bâzu "arm," from Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" Mod.Pers. bâhu "stick, staff; arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm").

<< < -ab aba abs abs abs acc acc act act ada adi adv afo agi Ale alg Alk Aln alr alt amb ana And ang ani ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc arg arm art ass ast ast asy atm ato aur aut axi > >>