Hudargân, šomâlgân (#)
The north polar area, north of latitude 66° 33' 8'' N.
Arctic, from O.Fr. artique, from L. arcticus, from Gk. arktikos "of the north," literally "of the (northerly prominent constellation) Bear," from arktos "bear" (cf. Av. arša-, Mod.Pers. xers, Tabari aš, Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-).
Hudargân, from hudar, → north,
+ -gân prefix denoting the direction.
Arcturus (α Boötis)
Xersbân, Semâk-e râmeh (#)
The fourth brightest star in the sky (V magnitude -0.06) lying in the constellation → Boötes at a distance of about 35 light-years. Arcturus is a red giant of spectral type K2 IIIp.
L. Arcturus, from Gk. Arktouros "guardian of the bear," arktos "bear," → Arctic + ouros "guardian, watcher".
Xersbân "guardian of the bear," from xers "bear" (Mid.Pers.
xirs, Av. arša-, cognate with Gk. arktos,
Skt. rksa, L. ursus; PIE *rtko-) +
-bân suffix meaning "watcher, keeper, guard".
A particular extent of space or surface; the scope of a concept, operation, or activity.
The etymology is not clear; perhaps akin to L. arere "to be dry" → arid.
Pahné "area, field," from pahn "broad, wide" (Mid.Pers. pah(a)n, Av. pathana- "broad, wide, spacious," probably related to perethav- "broad, wide," Skt. prthav-, Gk. platus; PIE *plat- "to spread") + noun forming suffix -é.
The study of the surface features of Mars; the geography of Mars.
Areography, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -graphy.
Bahrâm-negâri, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -negâri→ -graphy.
The study of the origin, history, and structure of Mars; the geology of Mars.
Areology, from Gk. Ares "Mars" + → -logy.
Bahrâm-šenâsi, from Bahrâm "Mars" + -šenâsi→ -logy.
Fr.: diagramme d'Argand
A geometrical representation of → complex numbers, which like the → Cartesian coordinates, uses two reference perpendicular axes. The horizontal axis represents the → real number part of the number and the perpendicular axis the → imaginary number part.
Named after Jean Robert Argand (1768-1822), a Swiss mathematician, who introduced this representation; → diagram.
Fr.: méthode d'Argelander
Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander (1799-1875), German astronomer. His most important work was his compilation of the Bonner Durchmusterung; → method.
Argo (Argo Navis; Ship Argo)
Fr.: Navire Argo
The ship in which Jason sailed in search of the Golden Fleece.
Kašti "ship," from Mid.Pers. kaštik.
A generally reddish matter that settles from a liquid, especially from wine. Same as → tartar.
M.E. argul, argoile, from M.Fr. argoil, from L. argilla "argil."
Lerd ou lert "the sediment of liquids, dregs, lees" (Dehxodâ).
A → chemical element which occurs as a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas in the atmosphere (of which it constitutes 0.94% by volume) and in some volcanic gases; symbol Ar. → Atomic number 18; → atomic weight 39.948; → melting point -189.2°C; → boiling points -185.7°C.
Argon, from Gk. neutral of argos "inactive, idle, lazy," from negation prefix → a- + ergon "work," → energy. It was discovered in 1895 by the Scottish chemist William Ramsay and the English physicist Robert John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) in liquified atmospheric air.
To put forth reasons for or against.
1) General: A discussion involving differing points of view; debate;
a process of reasoning; series of reasons.
M.E., from M.Fr., from L. argmentum, from arguere "to make clear." Compare with L. argentum "silver," Gk. argos "white," arguron "silver," Av. auruša- "white" (Mid.Pers. arus "white, bright"), Av. ərəzata- "silver," Skt. arjuna- "white, shining," rajata- "silver," Mod.Pers. arziz "silvery metal tin;" PIE *arg- "to shine, be white, bright, clear."
Âruzmân, from Av. āroc- "to enlighten, make light," Av. raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" Skt. roka- "brightness, light," cognate with Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna); PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" + noun forming suffix -mân.
argument of periapsis
Fr.: argument du périastre
The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting a → primary and its periapsis measured from the primary. Argument of periapsis is measured in the → orbital plane in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements. See also → argument of perigee, → argument of perihelion.
argument of perigee
Fr.: argument du périgée
argument of perihelion
Fr.: argument du périhélie
The angular distance between the → ascending node of an object orbiting the Sun and its perihelion. Argument of perihelion is measured in the → orbital plane with respect to the Sun and in the direction of motion. It is one of the → orbital elements and usually shown with the symbol ω. See also: → argument of perigee, → argument of periapsis.
The presentation and elaboration of an argument or arguments.
Noun from → argument.
1) Fond of or given to argument and dispute.
Lacking sufficient water or rainfall.
L. aridus, from arere "to be dry, i.e. burnt up"; compare with Gk. azaleos "dry," PIE *as- "to burn, glow".
Kamâb, from Mod.P. kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + âb "water".
A measure of the degree to which a climate lacks effective moisture.
Aridity, noun from → arid.
Kamâbi, noun from amâbi, → arid.
Ariel (Uranus I)
A satellite of → Uranus discovered by Lassell in 1851. It is orbiting at a mean distance of 192,000 kilometers with a period of 2.52 days.
Ariel, a spirit in William Shakespeare's The Tempest.