An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 902
atmosphere
  جو، هواسپهر   
javv (#), havâsepehr

Fr.: atmosphère   

1) The gaseous envelope surrounding a star, planet, or moon. Several solar system planets retain considerable atmospheres, due to their strong gravitational force. The gas motions in the planetary atmosphere, as a response to the heating, coupled with the rotation forces, generate the meteorological systems. The planetary satellites → Titan and → Triton also have atmospheres (M.S.: SDE).
2) A unit of pressure, called standard atmosphere, which is the pressure of air balanced by a column of mercury 76 cm high with a density of the mercury of 13.595 g/cm3 at normal acceleration of gravity. Such a column applies a pressure equal to its weight to each square cm, or 1.01325 x 106 dynes/cm2 = 1.01325 x 105 N/m2. Since this pressure is equal to 1.03323 kilograms of force per square centimeter, instead of it use is often made of the technical atmosphere (at), exactly equal to 1 kgf/cm2.

New L. atmosphaera, from Gk. atmos "vapor" + spharia "sphere."

Havâsepehr, from Mod.Pers. havâ, → air, + sepehr, → sphere. Javv "air, atmosphere," from Ar. jauw.

atmospheric
  جوی، هواسپهری   
javvi, havâsepehri (#)

Fr.: atmosphérique   

Pertaining to or existing in the atmosphere of an astronomical object such as a planet, moon, or star.

atmosphere; → -ic.

atmospheric absorption
  درشم ِ جوی   
daršam-e javvi

Fr.: absorption atmosphérique   

The absorption of → electromagnetic radiation in the → atmosphere mainly by → water vapor, → carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The atmosphere introduces two more limiting factors in → remote sensing: → atmospheric scattering and → atmospheric turbulence.

atmospheric; → absorption.

atmospheric circulation
  پرهونش ِ هواسپهری   
parhuneš-e havâsepehri

Fr.: circulation atmosphérique   

The large-scale movements of air around areas of high and low pressure whereby heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. Atmospheric motion is driven by uneven heating of the planet. The atmosphere (and ocean) → transfers the excess heat from → tropics to → poles. The flow is determined by balance between → pressure gradients and the → Coriolis effect.

atmospheric; → circulation.

atmospheric dispersion
  پاشش ِ جوی   
pâšeš-e javvi

Fr.: dispersion atmosphérique   

The splitting of starlight into a spectrum in the atmosphere because the atmosphere acts as a refracting prism. This phenomenon brings about a practical problem for spectroscopic observations using a slit. → differential refraction; → atmospheric refraction.

atmospheric; → dispersion.

atmospheric emission
  گسیل ِ جوی   
gosil-e javvi

Fr.: émission atmosphérique   

The emission of electromagnetic radiation from the atmosphere due to thermal and → non-thermal processes. → Thermal emission comes mainly from → water vapor. Non-thermal processes result in emission lines oxygen (optical) and OH (near-IR). Atmospheric emission is a very significant source of noise in astronomical observations. See also → airglow, → aurora.

atmospheric; → emission.

atmospheric extinction
  خاموشی ِ جوی   
xâmuši-ye javvi

Fr.: extinction atmosphérique   

The decrease in the intensity of light from a celestial body due to absorption and scattering by Earth's atmosphere. It increases from the zenith to the horizon and affects short wavelengths more than long wavelengths, so that objects near the horizon appear redder than they do at the zenith.

atmospheric; → extinction.

atmospheric muon
  موءون ِ جوی، ~ هواسپهری   
muon-e javvi, ~ havâsepehri

Fr.: muon atmosphérique   

A → subatomic particle produced when → primary cosmic rays, impinge on the Earth's atmosphere producing a particle cascade, in which secondary particles decay into → muons. In the energy range up to 100 → GeV atmospheric muons come mostly from the decay of secondary → pions: π±→ μ± + anti-νμ. At higher energies, the → kaon contribution to the muon flux become significant, reaching the asymptotic value of 27% at about 10 TeV: K±→ μ± + anti-νμ.

atmospheric; → muon.

atmospheric neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ جوی   
notrino-ye javvi

Fr.: neutrino atmosphérique   

A neutrino produced in the collision of → cosmic rays (typically → protons) with nuclei in the → upper atmosphere. This creates a shower of → hadrons, mostly → pions. The pions decay to a → muon and a muon neutrino. The muons decay to an → electron, another muon neutrino, and an electron neutrino.

atmospheric; → neutrino.

atmospheric noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ جوی   
nufe-ye javvi

Fr.: bruit atmosphérique   

Noise in radio wavelengths caused by natural atmospheric processes, mainly lightening discharges in thunderstorms. They can affect radio observations.

atmospheric; → noise.

atmospheric refraction
  شکست ِ جوی   
šekast-e javvi

Fr.: réfraction atmosphérique   

The shift in apparent direction of a celestial object caused by the bending of light while passing through the Earth's atmosphere. Since the density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude, the starlight will bend more as it continues down through the atmosphere. As a result, a star will appear higher in the sky than its true direction.

atmospheric; → refraction.

atmospheric scattering
  پراکنش ِ جوی   
parâkaneš-e javvi

Fr.: diffusion atmosphérique   

The → scattering of → electromagnetic radiation by various particles in the Earth's → atmosphere. The phenomenon is caused by collisions between photons and several scattering agents such as atoms, molecules, → aerosols, and water droplets in clouds. → Rayleigh scattering.

atmospheric; → scattering.

atmospheric turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ جوی   
âšubnâki-ye javvi

Fr.: turbulence atmosphérique   

Random fluctuations of the atmosphere caused by the constant injection of energy into the atmosphere from solar and local sources, changing the temperature and pressure of the air where it is absorbed and leading to fluid instabilities. The development over time of the instabilities gives rise to fluctuations in the density of air, and therefore the → refractive index of the atmosphere. → turbulence; → seeing.

atmospheric; → turbulence.

atmospheric windows
  روزنه‌های ِ جوی   
rowzanehâ-ye javvi (#)

Fr.: fenêtres atmosphériques   

Gaps in → atmospheric absorption, allowing a range of electromagnetic wavelengths to pass through the atmosphere and reach the Earth.

atmospheric; → window.

atoll
  آتول   
âtol (#)

Fr.: atoll   

A coral island or group of coral islands forming a ring that is surrounded by deep ocean water and that encloses a shallow lagoon. Atolls range in diameter from about 1 km to over 100 km and are especially common in the western and central Pacific Ocean. They are believed to form along the fringes of underwater volcanoes. → atoll source.

From atollon, atolon, from Divehi (Indo-Aryan language of the Maldive Islands) atolu "reef."

atoll source
  خن ِ آتول   
xan-e âtol

Fr.: source atoll   

A member of a class of → low-mass X-ray binary systems containing low-magnetic field → neutron stars. They have soft spectra and no pulsations. An example is 4U 1705-44. See also → Z source.

atoll; the name derives from the fact that on X-ray → color-color diagrams these sources often resemble a band of points at constant hard X-ray color, with "islands" of points appearing on time-scales of weeks and months.

atom
  اتم   
atom (#)

Fr.: atome   

The smallest stable unit forming the basic elements. An atom consists of positively charged → protons and → neutrons in the nucleus surrounded by negatively charged → electrons.

From L. atomus, from Gk. atomos "uncut," from → a- "not" + tomos "a cutting," from temnein "to cut."

atomic
  اتمی   
atomi (#)

Fr.: atomique   

Of or relating to an atom or atoms; of or employing nuclear energy.

Atomic, adj. from → atom + suffix → -ic

atomic clock
  ساعت ِ اتمی   
sâat-e atomi

Fr.: horloge atomique   

A modern clock, in which the characteristic frequencies of certain atoms (most commonly chosen cesium 133) are utilized for precision time measurement. → atomic fountain clock.

atomic; → clock.

atomic fountain
  فواره‌ی ِ اتمی   
favvâre-ye atomi

Fr.: fontaine atomique   

A gaseous ball of atoms, usually → cesium (133Cs), created by the → laser cooling technique and used in an → atomic fountain clock. The ball, typically a few millimeters in diameter and containing some 107 atoms, can be launched upward against gravity using a → laser beam. The launch velocity is chosen such that the atoms reach a height of about one meter before they turn back and fall down the same path they came up. The motion of the ball resembles that of the water in a pulsed fountain.

atomic; fountain, from M.E. fontayne from O.Fr. fontaine, from L.L. fontana, noun use of feminine of L. fontanus "of a spring," from fons "spring of water."

Favvâré, Pers. construction from Ar. faur "boiling, bubbling."

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