Fr.: absorption atmosphérique
The absorption of → electromagnetic radiation in the → atmosphere mainly by → water vapor, → carbon dioxide, and oxygen. The atmosphere introduces two more limiting factors in → remote sensing: → atmospheric scattering and → atmospheric turbulence.
Fr.: circulation atmosphérique
The large-scale movements of air around areas of high and low pressure whereby heat is distributed on the surface of the Earth. Atmospheric motion is driven by uneven heating of the planet. The atmosphere (and ocean) → transfers the excess heat from → tropics to → poles. The flow is determined by balance between → pressure gradients and the → Coriolis effect.
Fr.: dispersion atmosphérique
The splitting of starlight into a spectrum in the atmosphere because the atmosphere acts as a refracting prism. This phenomenon brings about a practical problem for spectroscopic observations using a slit. → differential refraction; → atmospheric refraction.
Fr.: émission atmosphérique
The emission of electromagnetic radiation from the atmosphere due to thermal and → non-thermal processes. → Thermal emission comes mainly from → water vapor. Non-thermal processes result in emission lines oxygen (optical) and OH (near-IR). Atmospheric emission is a very significant source of noise in astronomical observations. See also → airglow, → aurora.
Fr.: extinction atmosphérique
The decrease in the intensity of light from a celestial body due to absorption and scattering by Earth's atmosphere. It increases from the zenith to the horizon and affects short wavelengths more than long wavelengths, so that objects near the horizon appear redder than they do at the zenith.
muon-e javvi, ~ havâsepehri
Fr.: muon atmosphérique
A → subatomic particle produced when → primary cosmic rays, impinge on the Earth's atmosphere producing a particle cascade, in which secondary particles decay into → muons. In the energy range up to 100 → GeV atmospheric muons come mostly from the decay of secondary → pions: π±→ μ± + anti-νμ. At higher energies, the → kaon contribution to the muon flux become significant, reaching the asymptotic value of 27% at about 10 TeV: K±→ μ± + anti-νμ.
Fr.: neutrino atmosphérique
A neutrino produced in the collision of → cosmic rays (typically → protons) with nuclei in the → upper atmosphere. This creates a shower of → hadrons, mostly → pions. The pions decay to a → muon and a muon neutrino. The muons decay to an → electron, another muon neutrino, and an electron neutrino.
Fr.: bruit atmosphérique
Noise in radio wavelengths caused by natural atmospheric processes, mainly lightening discharges in thunderstorms. They can affect radio observations.
Fr.: réfraction atmosphérique
The shift in apparent direction of a celestial object caused by the bending of light while passing through the Earth's atmosphere. Since the density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude, the starlight will bend more as it continues down through the atmosphere. As a result, a star will appear higher in the sky than its true direction.
Fr.: diffusion atmosphérique
The → scattering of → electromagnetic radiation by various particles in the Earth's → atmosphere. The phenomenon is caused by collisions between photons and several scattering agents such as atoms, molecules, → aerosols, and water droplets in clouds. → Rayleigh scattering.
Fr.: turbulence atmosphérique
Random fluctuations of the atmosphere caused by the constant injection of energy into the atmosphere from solar and local sources, changing the temperature and pressure of the air where it is absorbed and leading to fluid instabilities. The development over time of the instabilities gives rise to fluctuations in the density of air, and therefore the → refractive index of the atmosphere. → turbulence; → seeing.
rowzanehâ-ye javvi (#)
Fr.: fenêtres atmosphériques
Gaps in → atmospheric absorption, allowing a range of electromagnetic wavelengths to pass through the atmosphere and reach the Earth.
A coral island or group of coral islands forming a ring that is surrounded by deep ocean water and that encloses a shallow lagoon. Atolls range in diameter from about 1 km to over 100 km and are especially common in the western and central Pacific Ocean. They are believed to form along the fringes of underwater volcanoes. → atoll source.
From atollon, atolon, from Divehi (Indo-Aryan language of the Maldive Islands) atolu "reef."
Fr.: source atoll
→ atoll; the name derives from the fact that on X-ray → color-color diagrams these sources often resemble a band of points at constant hard X-ray color, with "islands" of points appearing on time-scales of weeks and months.
From L. atomus, from Gk. atomos "uncut," from → a- "not" + tomos "a cutting," from temnein "to cut."
Of or relating to an atom or atoms; of or employing nuclear energy.
Fr.: horloge atomique
A modern clock, in which the characteristic frequencies of certain atoms (most commonly chosen cesium 133) are utilized for precision time measurement. → atomic fountain clock.
Fr.: fontaine atomique
A gaseous ball of atoms, usually → cesium (133Cs), created by the → laser cooling technique and used in an → atomic fountain clock. The ball, typically a few millimeters in diameter and containing some 107 atoms, can be launched upward against gravity using a → laser beam. The launch velocity is chosen such that the atoms reach a height of about one meter before they turn back and fall down the same path they came up. The motion of the ball resembles that of the water in a pulsed fountain.
→ atomic; fountain, from M.E. fontayne from O.Fr. fontaine, from L.L. fontana, noun use of feminine of L. fontanus "of a spring," from fons "spring of water."
Favvâré, Pers. construction from Ar. faur "boiling, bubbling."
atomic fountain clock
sâ'at-e favvâre-ye atomi
Fr.: horloge à fontaine atomique
An → atomic clock based on the principle of the → atomic fountain. A ball of atoms, usually → cesium (133Cs), created by the → laser cooling technique, is trapped in the intersection region of six laser beams. The ball is thrown upward by a laser beam and passes twice through a cavity where the atoms interact with the → microwave radiation generated by an → oscillator. The ball reaches the summit of its trajectory (about 1 m above the cooling zone) and then due to gravity falls through the same microwave cavity. The microwave radiation causes the electrons of the cesium atoms to move between two specific → energy states as they pass through the cavity. The clock is based on a → hyperfine transition (9.192631770 GHz) between two energy states in the electronic → ground state of the atom. The upper hyperfine state can in principle radiate to the lower state by → spontaneous emission, but the process takes a very long time -- thousands of years. Selection and detection of the hyperfine state is performed via → optical pumping and laser induced resonance fluorescence. In a carefully controlled setup, a relative uncertainty of 10 -16 can be reached for the cesium clock. This means an accuracy of 1 sec every 300 million years. This fluorescence is measured by a detector. The entire process is repeated until the maximum fluorescence of the cesium atoms is determined. This determination is used to lock the oscillator to the atomic frequency of cesium, which is used to define the SI → second. The first atomic fountain for metrological use was developed at the Paris Observatory (A. Clairon et al. 1996, Proc. 5th Symp. Frequency Standards and Metrology, p. 45).
Fr.: chaleur atomique